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Stephanie A. Terezakis and Nancy Y. Lee

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor derived from parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid gland. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for MTC. External-beam radiation treatment (EBRT) has traditionally played a limited role in the management of MTC. Despite aggressive surgery, patients at high risk for local recurrence may benefit from adjuvant EBRT. With improvements in radiation technique, adequate dose can be effectively delivered to the region at risk while minimizing dose to surrounding critical structures. Although the role of EBRT in the management of these tumors has thus far been poorly defined, EBRT should be considered as a treatment option for patients with locally advanced MTC to optimize locoregional control.

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Maria A. Kouvaraki, Suzanne E. Shapiro, Jeffrey E. Lee, Douglas B. Evans, and Nancy D. Perrier

Thyroid carcinoma has a unique biologic behavior characterized by early spread to regional lymph nodes and occasional extrathyroidal soft tissue extension but a low incidence of distant metastasis and infrequent disease-related death. Therefore, controversy exists over the proper extent of thyroidectomy and regional lymph node dissection in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The modest disease-specific mortality makes it unlikely that the extent of surgery will ever be the subject of a prospective randomized trial. Although more extensive cervical surgery may have only a limited effect on the duration of survival in patients with DTC, it may significantly improve quality of life by minimizing cervical recurrence. The high rates of cervical recurrence in patients with DTC and MTC have alerted physicians to the importance of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasonography for the diagnosis, preoperative staging, and follow-up of thyroid cancer. In patients with MTC, death caused by disease is uncommon in the absence of radiographically evident distant metastasis at the time of thyroidectomy. Cervical recurrence is even more common with MTC, and the need for compartment-oriented lymphadenectomy is accepted as standard surgical treatment to minimize disease recurrence. Postoperatively, calcitonin (CT) levels can be used to guide clinical management, but basal CT levels should not be used to direct the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy in affected high-risk patients with familial MTC.

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Jung Julie Kang, Hannah Verma, Kaveh Zakeri, Huili Wang, Dan Fan, Ming Fan, Anna Lee, Sarin Kitpanit, Linda Chen, Yao Yu, C. Jillian Tsai, Sean McBride, Nadeem Riaz, Daphna Gelblum, Alan S. Ho, Eric Sherman, Lara Dunn, Jay O. Boyle, Richard J. Wong, Ian Ganly, and Nancy Y. Lee

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Narek Shaverdian, Erin F. Gillespie, Elaine Cha, Soo Young Kim, Stephanie Benvengo, Fumiko Chino, Jung Julie Kang, Yuelin Li, Thomas M. Atkinson, Nancy Lee, Charles M. Washington, Oren Cahlon, and Daniel R. Gomez

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed cancer care with the rapid expansion of telemedicine, but given the limited use of telemedicine in oncology, concerns have been raised about the quality of care being delivered. We assessed the patient experience with telemedicine in routine radiation oncology practice to determine satisfaction, quality of care, and opportunities for optimization. Patients and Methods: Patients seen within a multistate comprehensive cancer center for prepandemic office visits and intrapandemic telemedicine visits in December 2019 through June 2020 who completed patient experience questionnaires were evaluated. Patient satisfaction between office and telemedicine consultations were compared, patient visit-type preferences were assessed, and factors associated with an office visit preference were determined. Results: In total, 1,077 patients were assessed (office visit, n=726; telemedicine, n=351). The telemedicine-consult survey response rate was 40%. No significant differences were seen in satisfaction scores between office and telemedicine consultations, including the appointment experience versus expectation, quality of physician’s explanation, and level of physician concern and friendliness. Among telemedicine survey respondents, 45% and 34% preferred telemedicine and office visits, respectively, and 21% had no preference for their visit type. Most respondents found their confidence in their physician (90%), understanding of the treatment plan (88%), and confidence in their treatment (87%) to be better or no different than with an office visit. Patients with better performance status and who were married/partnered were more likely to prefer in-person office visit consultations (odds ratio [OR], 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00–1.08]; P=.047, and 2.41 [95% CI, 1.14–5.47]; P=.009, respectively). Patients with telephone-only encounters were more likely to report better treatment plan understanding with an office visit (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.00–4.77; P=.04). Conclusions: This study is the first to assess telemedicine in routine radiation oncology practice, and found high patient satisfaction and confidence in their care. Optimization of telemedicine in oncology should be a priority, specifically access to audiovisual capabilities that can improve patient–oncologist communication.

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis E. Fayad, Richard I. Fisher, Martha J. Glenn, Thomas M. Habermann, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Rachel Rabinovitch, Nishitha Reddy, Erin Reid, Ayman A. Saad, Lubomir Sokol, Lode J. Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Lynn Wilson, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary Dwyer, and Hema Sundar

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease, which are managed in the same way. The advent of novel monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab and obinutuzumab) led to the development of effective chemoimmunotherapy regimens. The recently approved small molecule kinase inhibitors (ibrutinib and idelalisib) are effective treatment options for CLL in elderly patients with decreased tolerance for aggressive regimens and in patients with poor prognostic features who do not benefit from conventional chemoimmunotherapy regimens. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas describes the recent specific to the incorporation of recently approved targeted therapies for the management of patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed or refractory CLL/SLL.

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, Naresh Bellam, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis Fayad, Martha J. Glenn, Jon P. Gockerman, Leo I. Gordon, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Barbara Pro, Nishitha Reddy, Lubomir Sokol, Lode Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Maoko Naganuma, and Mary A. Dwyer

These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the 2012 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) and describe the clinical evidence supporting the updates. The featured updates include changes to the recommendations for treatment options in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (including in elderly or frail patients and patients with poor-risk cytogenetics), guidance surrounding surveillance imaging for follow-up of patients with NHL, and the addition of first-line consolidation options for patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis E. Fayad, Richard I. Fisher, Martha J. Glenn, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Rachel Rabinovitch, Nishitha Reddy, Erin Reid, Ayman A. Saad, Lubomir Sokol, Lode J. Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary Dwyer, and Hema Sundar

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders originating in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) accounts for approximately 6% of all newly diagnosed NHL cases. Radiation therapy with or without systemic therapy is a reasonable approach for the few patients who present with early-stage disease. Rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDT/ASCR) is recommended for patients presenting with advanced-stage disease. Induction therapy followed by rituximab maintenance may provide extended disease control for those who are not candidates for HDT/ASCR. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory disease. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for NHL regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with MCL.

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, John C. Byrd, Luis E. Fayad, Richard I. Fisher, Martha J. Glenn, Thomas M. Habermann, Nancy Lee Harris, Francisco Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Mark S. Kaminski, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Matthew Lunning, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Rachel Rabinovitch, Nishitha Reddy, Erin Reid, Kenneth Roberts, Ayman A. Saad, Lubomir Sokol, Lode J. Swinnen, Julie M. Vose, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary Dwyer, and Hema Sundar

Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are now considered a heterogeneous group of distinct molecular subtypes (germinal center B-cell DLBCL, activated B-cell DLBCL, and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) with varied natural history and response to therapy. In addition, a subset of patients with DLBCL have concurrent MYC and/or BCL2 gene rearrangements (double-hit lymphomas; DHL) and others have a dual expression of both MYC and BCL2 proteins (double-expressing DLBCL; DEL). The standard of care for the treatment of patients with PMBL, DHL, or DEL has not been established. Adequate immunophenotyping and molecular testing (in selected circumstances) are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of different subtypes of DLBCL. The NCCN Guidelines included in this issue, part of the NCCN Guidelines for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, address the diagnosis and management of DLBCL and its subtypes.

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, Naresh Bellam, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis E. Fayad, Martha J. Glenn, Jon P. Gockerman, Leo I. Gordon, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Barbara Pro, Nishitha Reddy, Lubomir Sokol, Lode Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary A. Dwyer, and Maoko Naganuma

These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas (NHL) and provide a discussion of the clinical evidence that support the updates. The updates discussed in this article feature recommendations for additional treatment options in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and guidance surrounding the management of hepatitis virus reactivation/infections in high-risk patients with NHL undergoing antitumor therapy.

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Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, Naresh Bellam, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis E. Fayad, Richard I. Fisher, Martha J. Glenn, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Rachel Rabinovitch, Nishitha Reddy, Erin Reid, Lubomir Sokol, Lode J. Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary Dwyer, and Hema Sundar

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders originating in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common subtype of indolent NHL, accounting for approximately 22% of all newly diagnosed cases of NHL. The incorporation of rituximab to chemotherapy regimens has become a widely accepted standard of care for first-line therapy for patients with FL. Maintenance and consolidation therapy with rituximab and radioimmunotherapy have also been associated with improved progression-free survival in patients experiencing response to first-line therapy. Despite therapeutic advances that have improved outcomes, FL is generally considered a chronic disease characterized by multiple recurrences with current therapies. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with FL.