Background: Patients with cancer have several risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the impact of CDI on outcomes in this population needs elucidation. We analyzed the incidence of CDI and its impact on outcomes in patients with cancer using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Diagnosis codes were used to identify patients with cancer and CDI events. Demographics, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and discharge information were abstracted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models with weighted analysis were conducted to study CDI incidence and CDI-associated outcomes. Analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4. Results: During the 10-year study period, 20.1 million discharges had a cancer diagnosis. CDI developed in 1.09% of patients with cancer versus 0.77% of patients without cancer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.28–1.29; P<.001). The incidence of CDI in patients with cancer increased during the 10-year study period (64.7 per 10,000 discharges in 2001–2002 to 109.1 in 2009–2010; P<.001). In multivariable analysis, compared with patients with cancer without CDI, patients with cancer and CDI had a longer mean LOS (5.67 days; 95% CI, 5.39–5.94) and higher rates of in-hospital mortality (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16–1.20) and discharge to a care facility (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.72–1.75; all P<.001). Conclusions: In this national database, CDI incidence increased significantly in patients with cancer over the study period and was associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased mortality, and discharge to a care facility. Despite increased attention, CDI remained a serious infection and merits appropriate prevention and management.
Arjun Gupta, Raseen Tariq, Ryan D. Frank, Gary W. Jean, Muhammad S. Beg, Darrell S. Pardi, David H. Johnson and Sahil Khanna
Nivedita Arora, Arjun Gupta, Hong Zhu, Alana Christie, Jeffrey J. Meyer, Saad A. Khan and Muhammad S. Beg
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is one of the few cancers with an increasing incidence in the United States. We aimed to characterize race- and sex-based disparities in receipt of therapy and overall survival (OS) of SCCA using the SEER database. Methods: Cases of locoregional SCCA (T2–T4 any N M0) diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 in the SEER database were included. Demographics, tumor characteristics, type of therapy, and outcomes were extracted. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to test factors associated with OS. Data were reported as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: A total of 7,882 cases of locoregional SCCA were identified, with a median age of 58 years, 61.2% of whom were women, and 86.3% were white. Most patients (82.3%) received radiation therapy (RT), with the lowest rate in black men (76.7%) and the highest in white women (86.1%). The median OS was 135 months; OS was lower in elderly patients (age ≥65 years; 68 months), men (108 months), blacks (109 months), and those who did not receive RT (121 months). In multivariable analysis, age (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.17–1.21 per 5 years increase), sex (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.47–1.73, men vs women), race (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.34–1.71, black vs white), and RT (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82–0.99) were independently associated with OS (P<.05). Conclusions: Significant race- and sex-based disparities exist in survival of patients with locoregional SCCA. Further investigation into the causes of these disparities and methods for elimination are warranted.
Arjun Gupta, Avash Das, Raseen Tariq, Nizar Bhulani, Naveen Premnath, Dipesh Solanky, Ryan D. Frank, David Johnson, Sahil Khanna and Muhammad S. Beg
Background: There has been an overall decline in intensive care unit mortality over the past 2 decades, including in patients undergoing intubation and mechanical ventilation (MV). Whether this decline extends to patients with metastatic cancer remains unknown. We analyzed the outcomes of patients with metastatic cancer undergoing intubation/MV using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify patients with metastatic cancer who underwent intubation/MV. Demographics, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and discharge information were abstracted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models with weighted analysis were conducted to study trends in outcomes. Results: During the 10-year study period, 200,350 patients with metastatic cancer and who underwent intubation/MV were identified; the mean age was 65.3 years and 46.2% were men. There was an increase in the total number of patients with metastatic cancer who underwent intubation/MV during the study period, from 36,881 in 2001–2002 to 51,003 in 2009–2010 (P<.001). The overall inpatient mortality rate was 57.3%, discharge to a care facility (DTCF) rate was 40.9% among patients alive at discharge, and mean LOS was 11.1 days. No significant trends were seen in rates of mortality, DTCF, or LOS from 2001 to 2010. Conclusions: In this national database, there was an increase in the number of patients with metastatic cancer who underwent intubation/MV. These patients had high rates of inpatient mortality and DTCF, which did not improve during the study period. Therefore, novel solutions are required to improve outcomes for these patients.