Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author: Miguel Quirch x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Anita Sultan, Sriman Swarup, Somedeb Ball, Miguel Quirch, Meily Arevalo, Yin M. Myat, Ye Aung, Myo H. Zaw and Kyaw Z. Thein

Background: CDK4 and CDK6 are cyclin-dependent kinases that control transition between G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, hence controlling cell cycle progression by reversible combination with cyclin D1. In cancer cell, CDK4/6 activity is overexpressed, which can lead to amplification or overexpression of the genes encoding for CDK 4/6 or the cyclin D. Additionally, loss of endogenous INK4 inhibitors can also lead to over activity of CDK4 and CDK6. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to determine the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatic toxicities associated with CDK 4/6 inhibitors. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and meeting abstracts from inception through September 2018. In our analysis, we incorporated RCTs that mention GI toxicities and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as adverse effects. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: A total of 4,557 patients with advanced breast cancer from 7 phase III and 1 phase II RCTs were eligible. The study arms used were palbociclib/ribociclib/abemaciclib or placebo in combination with letrozole or anastrozole or fulvestrant or other hormonal agents. The RR of all-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 1.691 (95% CI: 1.220–2.345; P=.002); nausea, 1.632 (95% CI: 1.447–1.840; P<.001); vomiting, 1.684 (95% CI: 1.256–2.259, P=.001); stomatitis, 2.160 (95% CI: 1.332–3.503; P=.002); elevated AST, 1.832 (95% CI: 1.312–2.558; P<.001); and elevated ALT, 2.150 (95% CI: 1.649–2.803; P<.001). The RR of high-grade side effects were as follows: diarrhea, 2.592 (95% CI: 0.853–7.877; P=.093); nausea, 1.326 (95% CI: 0.589–2.988; P=.496); vomiting, 1.089 (95% CI: 0.479–2.476; P=.839); stomatitis, 2.097 (95% CI: 0.502–0.753; P=.310); elevated AST, 2.274 (95% CI: 1.173–4.410; P=.015); and elevated ALT, 3.988 (95% CI: 2.387–6.663; P<.001). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the risk of developing all grade GI toxicities and all grades of hepatic side effects including grade 3 and 4, was high in CDK 4/6 inhibitors group, compared to control arm, and prompt intervention with good supportive care is required.

Full access

Rachana Yendala, Kyaw Thein, Sriman Swarup, Anita Sultan, Somedeb Ball, Miguel Quirch, Myo H. Zaw, Yin M. Myat and Catherine Jones

Background: Pain, fatigue, hot flushes, and rash significantly contribute to quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is a common entity among women worldwide. In cancer cells, CDK4/6 activity is over expressed, which can lead to amplification or overexpression of the genes encoding for CDK 4/6 or the cyclin D, ultimately leading to endocrine therapy resistance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to determine the risk of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) events associated with CDK 4/6 inhibitors. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and meeting abstracts from inception through September 2018. RTCs that mention HRQOL events as adverse effects were incorporated in the analysis. Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95%CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: 8 RCTs (7 phase III and 1 phase II) with a total of 4,557 patients were eligible. The study arms used palbociclib/ribociclib/abemaciclib with letrozole or anastrozole or fulvestrant or other hormonal agent while the control arms utilized placebo in combination with letrozole or anastrozole or fulvestrant or other hormonal agent. The RR of all-grade side effects were as follows: fatigue, 1.226 (95% CI: 1.079–1.393; P=.002); back pain, 0.971 (95% CI: 0.844–1.117; P=.681); arthralgia, 0.978 (95% CI: 0.830–1.152; P=.790); headache, 1.046 (95% CI: 0.928–1.179; P=.459); alopecia, 2.635 (95% CI: 1.966–3.533; P<.001); hot flushes, 0.901 (95% CI: 0.766–1.060; P=.210); and rash, 2.068 (95% CI: 1.604–2.666; P<.001). The RR of high-grade side effects were as follows: fatigue, 3.487 (95% CI: 1.765–6.889; P<.001); back pain, 1.364 (95% CI: 0.695–2.679; P=.367); arthralgia, 1.148 (95% CI: 0.509–2.593; P=.740); headache, 0.807 (95% CI: 0.303–2.147; P=.667); and rash, 3.018(95% CI: 0.954–9.554; P=.060). Conclusions: Our study showed that the risk of developing all grades of fatigue and any-grade alopecia and rash was significantly with CDK 4/6 inhibitors. Prompt intervention with good supportive care is required.

Full access

Miguel Quirch, Sriman Swarup, Anita Sultan, Wai L. Thein, Zayar M. Oo, Nyein H. Yu, Myo H. Zaw, Donald P. Quick and Kyaw Z. Thein

Background: Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is essential for signaling of B-cell and chemokine receptors. Ibrutinib targets BTK and has become frontier in many hematologic malignancies. We undertook systematic review and pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the risk of hematologic toxicities and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) events associated with ibrutinib. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and meeting abstracts through September 2018. Phase III RCTs that mention hematologic toxicities and HRQOL events as adverse effects were incorporated in the analysis. Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the estimated pooled risk ratio with 95% CI. Random effects model was applied. Results: 6 phase III RCTs with a total of 1,811 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, mantle-cell lymphoma, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia were eligible. Studies compared Ibrutinib (I) vs ofatumumab, I vs chlorambucil, I+ bendamustine (B) + rituximab (R) vs placebo + B+ R, I vs temsirolimus and I vs R were included in the analysis. The relative risks (RR) of all-grade side effects were as follows: anemia, 0.812 (95% CI: 0.565–1.168; P=.261); neutropenia, 0.956 (95% CI: 0.720–1.268; P=.754); thrombocytopenia, 1.054 (95% CI: 0.450–2.470; P=.904); fatigue, 0.896 (95% CI: 0.761–1.056; P=.192); pyrexia, 1.123 (95% CI: 0.893–1.413; P=.322); and arthralgia, 1.863 (95% CI: 1.101–3.152; P=.020). The RR of high-grade adverse effects were as follows: anemia, 0.522 (95% CI: 0.371–0.733; P<.0001); neutropenia, 0.969 (95% CI: 0.751–1.249; P=.807); thrombocytopenia, 0.608 (95% CI: 0.252–1.470; P=.270); fatigue, 0.618 (95% CI: 0.396–0.964; P=.034); pyrexia, 1.165 (95% CI: 0.534–2.542; P=.701); and arthralgia, 3.623 (95% CI: 0.743–17.663; P=.111). Conclusion: Ibrutinib increased the risk of all-grade arthralgia whereas the risks of high-grade anemia and fatigue were significantly lower in the study arm, favoring ibrutinib.