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Perioperative Intravesical Chemotherapy in Non–Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Michael R. Abern, Richmond A. Owusu, Mark R. Anderson, Edward N. Rampersaud, and Brant A. Inman

The role for a single dose of intravesical chemotherapy (IVC) after transurethral resection (TUR) remains unclear in patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Several recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated its effect on recurrence, prompting this systematic review of RCTs comparing a single immediate postoperative dose of IVC versus placebo within 24 hours of TUR of NMIBC, and this meta-analysis using a random-effects model to predict the pooled relative risk (RR) of tumor recurrence. Subanalyses pooled studies by drug type and a meta-regression was performed to determine the effect of underlying patient risk factors on the efficacy of a single dose of IVC. A total of 3103 patients were randomized in the 18 RCTs that met inclusion criteria. The recurrence rate in patients receiving perioperative IVC and TUR was 37% versus 50% in the TUR-alone group. The pooled RR of recurrence for IVC and TUR was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56–0.79), corresponding to a 13% absolute reduction and a number needed to treat of 7.2 patients to avoid 1 recurrence. The proportions of patients with tumor risk factors (T1, high-grade, multifocal, or recurrent) were not associated with IVC efficacy. A single dose of IVC administered within 24 hours of TUR of NMIBC was found to result in a reduction in tumor recurrence (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56–0.79). Patients with higher-risk tumor features seem to benefit at a similar rate.

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Bladder Cancer, Version 2.2022

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Thomas W. Flaig, Philippe E. Spiess, Michael Abern, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Kevin Chan, Sam Chang, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Harry W. Herr, Jean Hoffman-Censits, Amar Kishan, Shilajit Kundu, Subodh M. Lele, Ronac Mamtani, Vitaly Margulis, Omar Y. Mian, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lakshminarayanan Nandagopal, Lance C. Pagliaro, Mamta Parikh, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Mark A. Preston, Kyle Richards, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Matthew Tollefson, Jonathan Tward, Jonathan L. Wright, Mary A. Dwyer, Carly J. Cassara, and Lisa A. Gurski

The NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of patients with bladder cancer and other urinary tract cancers (upper tract tumors, urothelial carcinoma of the prostate, primary carcinoma of the urethra). These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel discussion behind recent important updates to the guidelines regarding the treatment of non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, including how to treat in the event of a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) shortage; new roles for immune checkpoint inhibitors in non–muscle invasive, muscle-invasive, and metastatic bladder cancer; and the addition of antibody–drug conjugates for metastatic bladder cancer.