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Lindsey M. Charo, Adam M. Burgoyne, Paul T. Fanta, Hitendra Patel, Juliann Chmielecki, Jason K. Sicklick and Michael T. McHale

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare in pregnancy, with only 11 reported cases. Adjuvant imatinib therapy, which targets the most common driver mutations in GIST (KIT and PDGFRA), is recommended for patients with high-risk GIST, but it has known teratogenicity in the first trimester. A 34-year-old G3P2 woman underwent exploratory laparotomy at 16 weeks' gestation for a presumed adnexal mass. Surgical findings included normal adnexa and a 14-cm solid small bowel mass. The mass was resected en bloc with a segment of jejunum followed by a primary anastomosis. Histopathology and genomic analyses demonstrated a GIST with high-risk features but lack of KIT/PDGFRA mutations and identified the presence of a previously unreported, pathogenic PRKAR1B-BRAF gene fusion. Given her tumor profile, adjuvant therapy with imatinib was not recommended. GIST is rare in pregnancy, but can masquerade as an adnexal mass in women of childbearing age. Because neoadjuvant/adjuvant imatinib has risks of teratogenicity, tumor molecular profiling is critical as we identified a previously unreported gene fusion of PRKAR1B with BRAF that is predicted to be imatinib-resistant. In this case, testing provided the rationale for not offering adjuvant imatinib to avoid unnecessary toxicity to the patient and fetus.

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NCCN Guidelines Insights: Ovarian Cancer, Version 1.2019

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Deborah K. Armstrong, Ronald D. Alvarez, Jamie N. Bakkum-Gamez, Lisa Barroilhet, Kian Behbakht, Andrew Berchuck, Jonathan S. Berek, Lee-may Chen, Mihaela Cristea, Marie DeRosa, Adam C. ElNaggar, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Angela Jain, Carolyn Johnston, Charles A. Leath III, Joyce Liu, Haider Mahdi, Daniela Matei, Michael McHale, Karen McLean, David M. O’Malley, Richard T. Penson, Sanja Percac-Lima, Elena Ratner, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Theresa L. Werner, Emese Zsiros, Jennifer L. Burns and Anita M. Engh

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States, with less than half of patients living >5 years from diagnosis. A major challenge in treating ovarian cancer is that most patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. The best outcomes are observed in patients whose primary treatment includes complete resection of all visible disease plus combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Research efforts are focused on primary neoadjuvant treatments that may improve resectability, as well as systemic therapies providing improved long-term survival. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy recommendations, including the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the role of PARP inhibitors and bevacizumab as maintenance therapy options in select patients who have completed primary chemotherapy.