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Counterpoint: Prostate Cancer Life Expectancy Can Not Be Accurately Predicted From Currently Available Tools

Susan A. McCloskey and Michael R. Kuettel

A large and growing percentage of prostate cancers are diagnosed among men of advanced age. Current guidelines stratify treatment recommendations based on life expectancy; therefore, accurate determination of life expectancy is essential. Evidence shows that patient-related factors, including age, comorbidities, and functional status, are critical determinants of life expectancy. Equally strong evidence supports tumor-related factors, including Gleason score, tumor stage, and prostate-specific antigen, and efficacy of treatment. Currently, no available tools comprehensively consider all pertinent factors in determining life expectancy.

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NCCN Roundtable: What Are the Characteristics of an Optimal Clinical Practice Guideline?

David S. Ettinger, Michael Kuettel, Jennifer Malin, Joan S. McClure, Mary Lou Smith, Andrew D. Zelenetz, and F. Marc Stewart

Much has changed in the treatment of cancer since the first NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) were rolled out for 8 different tumor types in November 1996. NCCN Guidelines now include involved algorithms often containing multiple treatment alternatives and detailed pathways of care that depend on more-specific patient characteristics and molecular tumor diagnostics. With 47 different individual NCCN panels, all members of the cancer care team are now better informed than ever to guide patients through the often complex decision-making required to improve the odds of successful outcomes. At the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, a distinguished panel assembled to take a closer look at these invaluable clinical practice guidelines, first glancing backward to how it all started and then forward to explore the key ingredients of trustworthy guidelines.

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The Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Prostate Cancer

Simon D. Fung-Kee-Fung, Sima P. Porten, Maxwell V. Meng, and Michael Kuettel

In 2010, NCCN incorporated active surveillance (AS) into the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Prostate Cancer, and the 2012 update serves as an excellent resource with the most current evidence regarding treatment options for men with all stages of disease. However, the lack of clinical trials that directly compare various treatment modalities or identify the best management, especially for men with low-risk prostate cancer, makes the decision-making process difficult for both patients and physicians. Although general agreement exists on definitions of candidates for AS—men with low-volume and low-grade disease thought to be at low risk for rapid progression—several key issues remain in establishing and supporting the role of AS in the management of prostate cancer, such as optimal timing and appropriate triggers for active treatment. The decision to initially pursue AS rather than active treatment after prostate cancer diagnosis is complex and involves myriad factors, including estimation of life expectancy, consideration of quality of life, and assessment of ultimate oncologic outcome.

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Impact of an NCCN-Compliant Multidisciplinary Conference on Treatment Decisions for Localized Prostate Cancer

Ahmed A. Hussein, Umar Iqbal, Zhe Jing, Yousuf Ramahi, Holly Houenstein, Stephanie Newman, Blake Peterson, Katarina Krajacic, Adeena Samoni, Bo Xu, Norbert Sule, Gissou Azabdaftari, Eric C. Kauffman, James L. Mohler, Michael Kuettel, and Khurshid A. Guru

Background: We sought to investigate the impact of an NCCN-compliant multidisciplinary conference on treatment decisions of patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: A retrospective review of our quality assurance localized prostate cancer database was performed. All patients with localized prostate cancer who sought a second opinion at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center between 2009 and 2019 were presented to the multidisciplinary Localized Prostate Cancer Conference (LPCC) that includes urologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, and patient advocates. Multivariable regression models were fit to evaluate variables associated with concordance between community recommendations, LPCC recommendations, and treatment received by patients. Results: A total of 1,164 patients were identified, of whom 26% had NCCN very low-/low-risk, 27% had favorable intermediate-risk, 25% had unfavorable intermediate-risk, and 22% had high-/very high-risk prostate cancer. Pathology changed in 11% of patients after genitourinary pathologist review, which caused disease reclassification in 9%. Concordance between community and LPCC recommendations occurred in 78%, with lowest concordance for androgen deprivation therapy (21%) and radiotherapy (53%). Concordance between community recommendations and treatment received occurred in 65%, with lowest concordance for androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy; among those who were recommended radiotherapy as the only option by their community urologist, only 26% received it. Concordance between LPCC recommendations and treatment received occurred in 92%. Conclusions: Community recommendations differed from the multidisciplinary NCCN-compliant recommendations in 22% of patients, primarily for radiotherapy. Multidisciplinary recommendations matched the treatment received in 92% of patients compared with 65% for community recommendations.

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Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2014

James L. Mohler, Philip W. Kantoff, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Michael Cohen, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Richard J. Lee, Gary R. MacVicar, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Eric J. Small, Sandy Srinivas, Cy Stein, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Patrick C. Walsh, Dorothy A. Shead, and Maria Ho

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations on the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. This report highlights notable recent updates. Radium-223 dichloride is a first-in-class radiopharmaceutical that recently received approval for the treatment of patients with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral disease. It received a category 1 recommendation as both a first-line and second-line option. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel also revised recommendations on the choice of intermittent or continuous androgen deprivation therapy based on recent phase III clinical data comparing the 2 strategies in the nonmetastatic and metastatic settings.

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Prostate Cancer, Version 2.2014

James L. Mohler, Philip W. Kantoff, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Michael Cohen, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Christopher J. Kane, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Timothy M. Kuzel, Richard J. Lee, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, David Raben, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Edward Schaeffer, Eric J. Small, Guru Sonpavde, Sandy Srinivas, Cy Stein, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Maria Ho

Prostate cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most common cancer in men in the United States. The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations on the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer based on clinical evidence and expert consensus. NCCN Panel guidance on treatment decisions for patients with localized disease is represented in this version. Significant updates for early disease include distinction between active surveillance and observation, a new section on principles of imaging, and revisions to radiation recommendations. The full version of these guidelines, including treatment of patients with advanced disease, can be found online at the NCCN website.

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Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2016

James L. Mohler, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Anthony Victor D'Amico, Brian J. Davis, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric M. Horwitz, Michael Hurwitz, Christopher J. Kane, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Richard J. Lee, Joshua J. Meeks, David F. Penson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, David Raben, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Stan Rosenfeld, Edward Schaeffer, Ted A. Skolarus, Eric J. Small, Guru Sonpavde, Sandy Srinivas, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after an initial diagnosis of prostate cancer and management options for localized, regional, and metastatic disease. Recommendations for disease monitoring, treatment of recurrent disease, and systemic therapy for metastatic castration-recurrent prostate cancer also are included. This article summarizes the NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 update of the guidelines, which include refinement of risk stratification methods and new options for the treatment of men with high-risk and very-high-risk disease and progressive castration-naïve disease.

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Prostate Cancer, Version 2.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

James L. Mohler, Emmanuel S. Antonarakis, Andrew J. Armstrong, Anthony V. D’Amico, Brian J. Davis, Tanya Dorff, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas A. Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Michael Hurwitz, Joseph E. Ippolito, Christopher J. Kane, Michael R. Kuettel, Joshua M. Lang, Jesse McKenney, George Netto, David F. Penson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Thomas J. Pugh, Sylvia Richey, Mack Roach III, Stan Rosenfeld, Edward Schaeffer, Ahmad Shabsigh, Eric J. Small, Daniel E. Spratt, Sandy Srinivas, Jonathan Tward, Dorothy A. Shead, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer include recommendations regarding diagnosis, risk stratification and workup, treatment options for localized disease, and management of recurrent and advanced disease for clinicians who treat patients with prostate cancer. The portions of the guidelines included herein focus on the roles of germline and somatic genetic testing, risk stratification with nomograms and tumor multigene molecular testing, androgen deprivation therapy, secondary hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy in patients with prostate cancer.

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Prostate Cancer

James Mohler, Robert R. Bahnson, Barry Boston, J. Erik Busby, Anthony D'Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Daniel George, Eric Mark Horwitz, Robert P. Huben, Philip Kantoff, Mark Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Paul H. Lange, Gary MacVicar, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Bruce J. Roth, Dennis C. Shrieve, Matthew R. Smith, Sandy Srinivas, Przemyslaw Twardowski, and Patrick C. Walsh

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Prostate Cancer, Version 3.2012 Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

James L. Mohler, Andrew J. Armstrong, Robert R. Bahnson, Barry Boston, J. Erik Busby, Anthony Victor D’Amico, James A. Eastham, Charles A. Enke, Thomas Farrington, Celestia S. Higano, Eric Mark Horwitz, Philip W. Kantoff, Mark H. Kawachi, Michael Kuettel, Richard J. Lee, Gary R. MacVicar, Arnold W. Malcolm, David Miller, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Mack Roach III, Eric Rohren, Stan Rosenfeld, Sandy Srinivas, Seth A. Strope, Jonathan Tward, Przemyslaw Twardowski, Patrick C. Walsh, Maria Ho, and Dorothy A. Shead

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight notable recent updates. Abiraterone acetate is a first-in-class hormonal agent that represents a new standard of care for patients with metastatic castration-recurrent prostate cancer who have previously received docetaxel (category 1 recommendation). Abiraterone acetate also received category 2B recommendations in the prechemotherapy setting for asymptomatic patients or symptomatic patients who are not candidates for docetaxel. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel also added new indications for existing agents, including the option of sipuleucel-T as second-line therapy. In addition, brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy is now an alternative for patients with high-risk localized tumors or locally advanced disease.