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Michael Angarone and Michael G. Ison

A leading complication of leukemia therapy and stem cell transplantation is opportunistic viral infections. Infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr, and the community respiratory viruses are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in this highly immunosuppressed population. Fortunately, a growing armamentarium is allowing more effective prophylaxis of these pathogens. This article reviews the epidemiology and prophylactic strategies available for these common opportunistic viral pathogens.

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Lindsey Robert Baden, Sankar Swaminathan, Michael Angarone, Gayle Blouin, Bernard C. Camins, Corey Casper, Brenda Cooper, Erik R. Dubberke, Ashley Morris Engemann, Alison G. Freifeld, John N. Greene, James I. Ito, Daniel R. Kaul, Mark E. Lustberg, Jose G. Montoya, Ken Rolston, Gowri Satyanarayana, Brahm Segal, Susan K. Seo, Shmuel Shoham, Randy Taplitz, Jeffrey Topal, John W. Wilson, Karin G. Hoffmann and Courtney Smith

Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections characterize the major pathogens to which patients with cancer are susceptible, with a focus on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of major common and opportunistic infections. This portion of the guidelines highlights the sections on antifungal and antiviral prophylaxis. Antifungal and antiviral prophylaxis recommendations have expanded over the past few years. New agents for the treatment of fungal infections and incorporation of therapeutic drug monitoring are presented. Antiviral prophylaxis for hepatitis B and management considerations for hepatitis C and HIV have been further developed.

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Lindsey Robert Baden, William Bensinger, Michael Angarone, Corey Casper, Erik R. Dubberke, Alison G. Freifeld, Ramiro Garzon, John N. Greene, John P. Greer, James I. Ito, Judith E. Karp, Daniel R. Kaul, Earl King, Emily Mackler, Kieren A. Marr, Jose G. Montoya, Ashley Morris-Engemann, Peter G. Pappas, Ken Rolston, Brahm Segal, Susan K. Seo, Sankar Swaminathan, Maoko Naganuma and Dorothy A. Shead

Patients with cancer are at increased risk for developing infectious complications during the course of their disease and treatment. The following sections of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections provide an overview of the risk factors for infectious complications, recommendations for infectious risk categorization, and strategies for prevention of infections in high-risk patient populations with cancer. Individualized risk evaluation for infections and incorporation of preventative measures are essential components of the overall spectrum of cancer care, and may contribute to optimizing treatment outcomes for patients.