The purpose of this article is to review the systemic management options for patients with metastatic renal cancer. We reviewed the literature regarding systemic management of metastatic renal cancer. Treatment options of chemotherapy agents, immunotherapy, molecularly targeted agents, allogeneic stem cell transplantation, vaccines, and other manipulations of the immune system are discussed. No chemotherapy agent used alone or in combination has consistently produced responses to substantiate its routine use. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-α (IFN-α) have shown response rates ranging from 10% to 20%. Some studies have shown that retinoids may enhance the antitumor activity of IFN-α. Molecularly targeted agents and angiogenic agents are being actively pursued and several studies are showing response rates above 30%. Although nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation shows some promising results, they also have limitations to its use. Therapy strategies that incorporate vaccines as part of comprehensive immune manipulations are also being studied. The systemic treatment of patients with advanced renal cell cancer continues to be a significant challenge. Immunotherapy treatment has shown response in up to 20% of patients. Unfortunately, most do not respond. The current technologies are promising and may be the key step for introduction of better treatments for renal cancer care.
Patricia Thompson and Mayer Fishman
Robert J. Motzer, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Graeme B. Bolger, Barry Boston, Michael A. Carducci, Toni K. Choueiri, Robert A. Figlin, Mayer Fishman, Steven L. Hancock, Gary R. Hudes, Eric Jonasch, Anne Kessinger, Timothy M. Kuzel, Paul H. Lange, Ellis G. Levine, Kim A. Margolin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Bruce G. Redman, Cary N. Robertson, Lawrence H. Schwartz, Joel Sheinfeld, and Jue Wang
Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Sam Bhayani, William P. Bro, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Mayer Fishman, Thomas H. Gallagher, John L. Gore, Steven L. Hancock, Michael R. Harrison, Won Kim, Christos Kyriakopoulos, Chad LaGrange, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Phillip M. Pierorazio, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Bruce G. Redman, Brian Shuch, Brad Somer, Guru Sonpavde, Jeffrey Sosman, Mary Dwyer, and Rashmi Kumar
The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with clear cell and non–clear cell renal carcinoma. These guidelines are developed by a multidisciplinary panel of leading experts from NCCN Member Institutions consisting of medical oncologists, hematologists and hematologic oncologists, radiation oncologists, urologists, and pathologists. The NCCN Guidelines are in continuous evolution and are updated annually or sometimes more often, if new high-quality clinical data become available in the interim.