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Cesar A. Santa-Maria, Maureen O’Donnell, Raquel Nunes, Jean L. Wright, and Vered Stearns

The KEYNOTE-522 study is a practice-changing phase III randomized study that demonstrated that the addition of pembrolizumab to polychemotherapy improves outcomes in patients with high-risk early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This regimen is highly efficacious with unprecedented pathologic complete response (pCR) rates, and clinically meaningful improvements in event-free survival (EFS). However, the combination is also associated with significant high-grade treatment-related toxicity. The backbone regimen deviated from common practice, including the addition of carboplatin, lack of dose dense anthracyclines, and adjuvant capecitabine for residual disease, thus brining important questions regarding real-world translation of these results. This brief report practically addresses some of the most relevant questions physicians and patients face in optimizing care using the best available evidence.