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  • Author: Matthew D. Ringel x
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Dwight H. Owen, Bhavana Konda, Jennifer Sipos, Tom Liu, Amy Webb, Matthew D. Ringel, Cynthia D. Timmers and Manisha H. Shah

BRAF V600E mutations occur in approximately 40% of all patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and are associated with a worse prognosis in population studies. Treatment with single-agent BRAF inhibitors can result in nondurable partial responses (PRs) in clinical trials, but resistance inevitably develops. The mechanisms of resistance are not completely understood, but in non-thyroid tumors harboring BRAF V600E mutations, resistance has been ascribed to concurrent or acquired mutations in MEK1/2, RAC1, KRAS, and NRAS. This case report describes a patient with radioactive iodine–refractory metastatic PTC treated in a clinical trial with combination BRAF and MEK inhibition who achieved a durable PR. At time of progression, biopsy revealed an acquired KRAS G12V–activating mutation. The patient subsequently went on to have a PR to cabozantinib therapy in the clinical trial. This is the first reported case of an acquired KRAS-activating mutation that developed during treatment with BRAF and MEK inhibition in a patient with BRAF-mutated PTC. The KRAS mutation was also detected in peripheral blood samples taken as part of the trial, indicating that resistant mutations may be identified through noninvasive means. The identification of resistant mutations in patients at time of progression is necessary to identify possible therapeutic options including potential clinical trials.

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01723202

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Robert I. Haddad, William M. Lydiatt, Douglas W. Ball, Naifa Lamki Busaidy, David Byrd, Glenda Callender, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Megan Haymart, Carl Hoh, Jason P. Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, Judith C. McCaffrey, Jeffrey F. Moley, Lee Parks, Christopher D. Raeburn, John A. Ridge, Matthew D. Ringel, Randall P. Scheri, Jatin P. Shah, Robert C. Smallridge, Cord Sturgeon, Thomas N. Wang, Lori J. Wirth, Karin G. Hoffmann and Miranda Hughes

This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer.

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R. Michael Tuttle, Robert I. Haddad, Douglas W. Ball, David Byrd, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Megan Haymart, Carl Hoh, Jason P. Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, William M. Lydiatt, Judith McCaffrey, Jeffrey F. Moley, Lee Parks, Christopher D. Raeburn, John A. Ridge, Matthew D. Ringel, Randall P. Scheri, Jatin P. Shah, Steven I. Sherman, Cord Sturgeon, Steven G. Waguespack, Thomas N. Wang, Lori J. Wirth, Karin G. Hoffmann and Miranda Hughes

These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on “Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer” was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents.

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Robert I. Haddad, Christian Nasr, Lindsay Bischoff, Naifa Lamki Busaidy, David Byrd, Glenda Callender, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Whitney Goldner, Megan Haymart, Carl Hoh, Jason P. Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Peter Kopp, Dominick M. Lamonica, Bryan McIver, Christopher D. Raeburn, John A. Ridge, Matthew D. Ringel, Randall P. Scheri, Jatin P. Shah, Rebecca Sippel, Robert C. Smallridge, Cord Sturgeon, Thomas N. Wang, Lori J. Wirth, Richard J. Wong, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Karin G. Hoffmann and Lisa A. Gurski

The NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma provide recommendations for the management of different types of thyroid carcinoma, including papillary, follicular, Hürthle cell, medullary, and anaplastic carcinomas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel discussion behind recent updates to the guidelines, including the expanding role of molecular testing for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, implications of the new pathologic diagnosis of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, and the addition of a new targeted therapy option for BRAF V600E–mutated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.