Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma are the most common aggressive pediatric mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs). Despite excellent survival with current chemotherapy regimens, therapy for Burkitt lymphoma and DLBCL has a high incidence of short- and long-term toxicities. Patients who experience relapse generally have a very poor prognosis. Therefore, novel approaches using targeted therapies to reduce toxicities and improve outcomes in the relapse setting are needed. The addition of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, to upfront therapy has improved survival outcomes for high-risk patients and may allow decreased total chemotherapy in those with low-risk disease. Antibody–drug conjugates have been combined with chemotherapy in relapsed/refractory (R/R) NHL, and multiple antibody–drug conjugates are in development. Additionally, bispecific T-cell–engaging antibody constructs and autologous CAR T-cells have been successful in the treatment of R/R acute leukemias and are now being applied to R/R B-NHL with some successes. PD-L1 and PD-L2 on tumor cells can be targeted with checkpoint inhibitors, which restore T-cell–mediated immunity and antitumor responses and can be added to conventional chemotherapy and immune-directed therapies to augment responses. Lastly, trials of small molecule inhibitors targeting cell signaling pathways in NHL subtypes are underway. This article reviews many of the targeted therapies under development that could be considered for future trials in R/R pediatric mature B-NHL.
Paul D. Harker-Murray, Lauren Pommert, and Matthew J. Barth
Kimberly Davies, Matthew Barth, Saro Armenian, Anthony N. Audino, Phillip Barnette, Branko Cuglievan, Hilda Ding, James B. Ford, Paul J. Galardy, Rebecca Gardner, Rabi Hanna, Robert Hayashi, Alexandra E. Kovach, Andrea Judit Machnitz, Kelly W. Maloney, Lianna Marks, Kristin Page, Anne F. Reilly, Joanna L. Weinstein, Ana C. Xavier, Nicole R. McMillian, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass
Pediatric aggressive mature B-cell lymphomas are the most common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children, and they include Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These diseases are highly aggressive but curable, the treatment is complex, and patients may have many complicated supportive care issues. The NCCN Guidelines for Pediatric Aggressive Mature B-Cell Lymphomas provide guidance regarding pathology and diagnosis, staging, initial treatment, disease reassessment, surveillance, therapy for relapsed/refractory disease, and supportive care for clinicians who treat sporadic pediatric BL and DLBCL.
Matthew Barth, Ana C. Xavier, Saro Armenian, Anthony N. Audino, Lindsay Blazin, David Bloom, Jong Chung, Kimberly Davies, Hilda Ding, James B. Ford, Paul J. Galardy, Rabi Hanna, Robert Hayashi, Cathy Lee-Miller, Andrea Judit Machnitz, Kelly W. Maloney, Lianna Marks, Paul L. Martin, David McCall, Martha Pacheco, Anne F. Reilly, Mikhail Roshal, Sophie Song, Joanna Weinstein, Sara Zarnegar-Lumley, Nicole McMillian, Ryan Schonfeld, and Hema Sundar
NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Pediatric Aggressive Mature B-Cell Lymphomas include recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and sporadic variants of Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMBL is now considered as a distinct entity arising from mature thymic B-cells accounting for 2% of mature B-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents. This discussion section includes the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with PMBL.