Background: Current guidelines support either immediate surgical resection or neoadjuvant therapy (NT) for patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, which patients are selected for NT and whether disparities exist in the use of NT for PDAC are not well understood. Methods: Using the National Cancer Database from 2004 through 2016, the clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and hospital-related characteristics of patients with stage I/II PDAC who underwent immediate surgery versus NT followed by surgery were compared. Results: Among 58,124 patients who underwent pancreatectomy, 8,124 (14.0%) received NT whereas 50,000 (86.0%) did not. Use of NT increased significantly throughout the study period (from 3.5% in 2004 to 26.4% in 2016). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that travel distance, education level, hospital facility type, clinical T stage, tumor size, and year of diagnosis were associated with increased use of NT, whereas comorbidities, uninsured/Medicaid status, South/West geography, left-sided tumor location, and increasing age were associated with immediate surgery (all P<.001). Based on logistic regression–derived interaction factors, the association between NT use and median income, education level, Midwest location, clinical T stage, and clinical N stage significantly increased over time (all P<.01). Conclusions: In addition to traditional clinicopathologic factors, several demographic, socioeconomic, and hospital-related factors are associated with use of NT for PDAC. Because NT is used increasingly for PDAC, efforts to reduce disparities will be critical in improving outcomes for all patients with pancreatic cancer.
Jordan M. Cloyd, Chengli Shen, Heena Santry, John Bridges, Mary Dillhoff, Aslam Ejaz, Timothy M. Pawlik and Allan Tsung
Margaret A. Tempero, Mokenge P. Malafa, Mahmoud Al-Hawary, Horacio Asbun, Andrew Bain, Stephen W. Behrman, Al B. Benson III, Ellen Binder, Dana B. Cardin, Charles Cha, E. Gabriela Chiorean, Vincent Chung, Brian Czito, Mary Dillhoff, Efrat Dotan, Cristina R. Ferrone, Jeffrey Hardacre, William G. Hawkins, Joseph Herman, Andrew H. Ko, Srinadh Komanduri, Albert Koong, Noelle LoConte, Andrew M. Lowy, Cassadie Moravek, Eric K. Nakakura, Eileen M. O'Reilly, Jorge Obando, Sushanth Reddy, Courtney Scaife, Sarah Thayer, Colin D. Weekes, Robert A. Wolff, Brian M. Wolpin, Jennifer Burns and Susan Darlow
Ductal adenocarcinoma and its variants account for most pancreatic malignancies. High-quality multiphase imaging can help to preoperatively distinguish between patients eligible for resection with curative intent and those with unresectable disease. Systemic therapy is used in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant pancreatic cancer setting, as well as in the management of locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease. Clinical trials are critical for making progress in treatment of pancreatic cancer. The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma focus on diagnosis and treatment with systemic therapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection.
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Margaret A. Tempero, Mokenge P. Malafa, E. Gabriela Chiorean, Brian Czito, Courtney Scaife, Amol K. Narang, Christos Fountzilas, Brian M. Wolpin, Mahmoud Al-Hawary, Horacio Asbun, Stephen W. Behrman, Al B. Benson III, Ellen Binder, Dana B. Cardin, Charles Cha, Vincent Chung, Mary Dillhoff, Efrat Dotan, Cristina R. Ferrone, George Fisher, Jeffrey Hardacre, William G. Hawkins, Andrew H. Ko, Noelle LoConte, Andrew M. Lowy, Cassadie Moravek, Eric K. Nakakura, Eileen M. O’Reilly, Jorge Obando, Sushanth Reddy, Sarah Thayer, Robert A. Wolff, Jennifer L. Burns and Griselda Zuccarino-Catania
The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma discuss the diagnosis and management of adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss important updates to the 2019 version of the guidelines, focusing on postoperative adjuvant treatment of patients with pancreatic cancers.
Margaret A. Tempero, Mokenge P. Malafa, Mahmoud Al-Hawary, Stephen W. Behrman, Al B. Benson III, Dana B. Cardin, E. Gabriela Chiorean, Vincent Chung, Brian Czito, Marco Del Chiaro, Mary Dillhoff, Timothy R. Donahue, Efrat Dotan, Cristina R. Ferrone, Christos Fountzilas, Jeffrey Hardacre, William G. Hawkins, Kelsey Klute, Andrew H. Ko, John W. Kunstman, Noelle LoConte, Andrew M. Lowy, Cassadie Moravek, Eric K. Nakakura, Amol K. Narang, Jorge Obando, Patricio M. Polanco, Sushanth Reddy, Marsha Reyngold, Courtney Scaife, Jeanne Shen, Charles Vollmer Jr., Robert A. Wolff, Brian M. Wolpin, Beth Lynn and Giby V. George
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. A major challenge in treatment remains patients’ advanced disease at diagnosis. The NCCN Guidelines for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma provides recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up for patients with pancreatic cancer. Although survival rates remain relatively unchanged, newer modalities of treatment, including targeted therapies, provide hope for improving patient outcomes. Sections of the manuscript have been updated to be concordant with the most recent update to the guidelines. This manuscript focuses on the available systemic therapy approaches, specifically the treatment options for locally advanced and metastatic disease.