Background: Although the incidence of cervical cancer among younger Black women is now equivalent to that of White women, it is unknown whether the reduced incidence has affected survival rates among younger Black women. The goal of this study was to assess differences in survival by age and race. Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Cancer Database to analyze women with nonmetastatic cervical cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. Women with unknown survival data and those who died within 3 months of diagnosis were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated interactions between age and race (Black vs non-Black) for presentation with stage I disease and receipt of optimal treatment. A multivariable Cox regression model was used to evaluate survival differences by age and race. Results: Of 55,659 women included, 16.4% were Black. Compared with their non-Black counterparts, fewer Black women presented with stage I disease (37.8% vs 47.8%; P<.01) and received optimal treatment (46.2% vs 58.3%; P<.01). Fewer Black women had private insurance if they were aged <65 years (39.6% vs 55.7%; P<.01), but not if they were aged ≥65 years (11.7% vs 12.4%; P=.43). According to multivariable logistic regression, Black women aged ≤39 years were less likely to present with stage I disease, with a significant interaction term between age and race (P<.01 for interaction). Disparities in overall survival by race were greatest for Black women aged ≤39 years (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20–1.46; P<.01) but decreased with increasing age interval until no disparity was noted for women aged ≥65 years (P<.01 for interaction). Conclusions: Younger Black women with cervical cancer are at risk for presenting with higher-stage disease and having worse overall survival. These findings may be related to insurance-related disparities and inadequate follow-up for abnormal Papanicolaou test results. Younger Black women with cervical cancer may be a particularly vulnerable population.
Stephanie Alimena, Suvidya Lakshmi Pachigolla, Sarah Feldman, David Yang, Peter F. Orio III, Larissa Lee, and Martin King
Vinayak Muralidhar, Paul L. Nguyen, Brandon A. Mahal, David D. Yang, Kent W. Mouw, Brent S. Rose, Clair J. Beard, Jason A. Efstathiou, Neil E. Martin, Martin T. King, and Peter F. Orio III
Background: Management of patients with a very high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (≥98.0 ng/mL) but clinically localized (N0M0) prostate cancer is challenging. This study sought to determine practice patterns and outcomes among these patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 748,825 patients with prostate cancer from 2004 through 2012 were identified using the National Cancer Database. These patients were subdivided by PSA level (0–9.9, 10.0–19.9, 20.0–39.9, 40.0–59.9, 60.0–79.9, 80.0–97.9, and ≥98.0 ng/mL), nodal status (N0 vs N1), and distant metastases (M0 vs M1). Rates of locoregional treatment and 5-year overall survival (OS) in each group were determined. Survival was compared using Cox regression after adjusting for multiple patient-specific factors. Results: The rate of locoregional treatment for patients with N0M0 disease and PSA level ≥98.0 ng/mL was significantly lower than for those with N1M0 disease (52.6% vs 60.4%; P<.001) or N0M0 disease and PSA level <98.0 ng/mL (52.6% vs 86.6%; P<.001). The 5-year OS rate was similar for patients with N1M0 disease and those with N0M0 disease and a very high PSA level (63.2% vs 59.1%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.91; P=.063). The survival benefit associated with locoregional treatment was higher among those with N0M0 disease and a very high PSA level than among those with N1M0 disease (aHR, 0.28 vs 0.44; P<.001). Conclusions: Patients with clinical N0M0 disease and a very high PSA level (≥98.0 ng/mL) have outcomes similar to those with N1 disease but receive locoregional treatment at a lower rate. Future work is needed to investigate the utility of locoregional treatment in this population.