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Christine M. Coticchia, Jiang Yang and Marsha A. Moses

As more effective, less toxic cancer drugs reach patients, the need for accurate and reliable cancer diagnostics and prognostics has become widely appreciated. Nowhere is this need more dire than in ovarian cancer; here most women are diagnosed late in disease progression. The ability to sensitively and specifically predict the presence of early disease and its status, stage, and associated therapeutic efficacy has the potential to revolutionize ovarian cancer detection and treatment. This article reviews current ovarian cancer diagnostics and prognostics and potential biomarkers that are being studied and validated. Some of the most recent molecular approaches being used to identify genes and proteins are presented, which may represent the next generation of ovarian cancer diagnostics and prognostics.