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Mark Bloomston, Henry Kaufman, John Winston, Mark Arnold, and Edward Martin

The benefits of laparoscopy in benign diseases are quite clear. Patients generally can expect smaller incisions, less narcotic usage, quicker return of bowel function, and shorter hospitalizations. The benefits of laparoscopy in oncologic surgery are less clear, and laparoscopic oncology surgery has many critics. Early reports of long surgical times, high operating room costs, and alarming rates of port-site recurrences after laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer all but stopped this less-invasive approach outside the confines of clinical protocols. As the results of larger retrospective studies began to refute these earlier detrimental claims, prospective randomized trials began to take a foothold. In this article, we review these randomized trials with particular attention to the perioperative effects of laparoscopic colectomy and the short-term oncologic outcomes.

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Natalie B. Jones, Manisha H. Shah, and Mark Bloomston

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are increasing in incidence. Incidental NETs that may have little clinical significance, such as gastric and rectal primaries, are often identified because of increased screening efforts and advanced imaging modalities. Although NETs are biologically indolent cancers, many patients present with incurable metastatic disease to the liver at initial diagnosis. Some literature suggests a delay averaging almost 5 years in making the correct diagnosis based on clinical symptoms. Although surgical resection offers the only potentially curative therapy, liver-directed therapies, such as embolization and ablation, offer effective alternatives to control symptoms and potentially impact overall survival. This article reviews the latest liver-directed approaches to the management of advanced NETs.

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Al B. Benson III, Thomas A. Abrams, Edgar Ben-Josef, P. Mark Bloomston, Jean F. Botha, Bryan M. Clary, Anne Covey, Steven A. Curley, Michael I. D'Angelica, Rene Davila, William D. Ensminger, John F. Gibbs, Daniel Laheru, Mokenge P. Malafa, Jorge Marrero, Steven G. Meranze, Sean J. Mulvihill, James O. Park, James A. Posey, Jasgit Sachdev, Riad Salem, Elin R. Sigurdson, Constantinos Sofocleous, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Laura Williams Goff, Yun Yen, and Andrew X. Zhu

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Al B. Benson III, Michael I. D’Angelica, Thomas A. Abrams, Chandrakanth Are, P. Mark Bloomston, Daniel T. Chang, Bryan M. Clary, Anne M. Covey, William D. Ensminger, Renuka Iyer, R. Kate Kelley, David Linehan, Mokenge P. Malafa, Steven G. Meranze, James O. Park, Timothy Pawlik, James A. Posey, Courtney Scaife, Tracey Schefter, Elin R. Sigurdson, G. Gary Tian, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Alan P. Venook, Yun Yen, Andrew X. Zhu, Karin G. Hoffmann, Nicole R. McMillian, and Hema Sundar

Hepatobiliary cancers include a spectrum of invasive carcinomas arising in the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma), gall bladder, and bile ducts (cholangiocarcinomas). Gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinomas are collectively known as biliary tract cancers. Gallbladder cancer is the most common and aggressive type of all the biliary tract cancers. Cholangiocarcinomas are diagnosed throughout the biliary tree and are typically classified as either intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas are more common than intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. This manuscript focuses on the clinical management of patients with gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinomas (intrahepatic and extrahepatic).