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Angela Pecoraro, Giuseppe Rosiello, Stefano Luzzago, Marina Deuker, Franciska Stolzenbach, Zhe Tian, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Fred Saad, Alberto Briganti, Anil Kapoor, Cristian Fiori, Francesco Porpiglia, and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Background: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Kidney Cancer recommend active surveillance as an option for initial management of T1a 0- to 2-cm renal lesions, in addition to partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, and focal ablation. However, contemporary data regarding the distribution of patient and renal cell carcinoma characteristics within this special patient group are scarce. Methods: Within the SEER database (2002–2016), 13,364 patients with T1aNanyMany 0- to 2-cm renal lesions treated with nephrectomy were identified. Data were tabulated according to histologic subtype, Fuhrman grade (FG1–2 vs FG3–4), age category, and sex. In addition, rates of synchronous metastases were quantified. Results: Overall, clear-cell (69.3%), papillary (21.4%), chromophobe (6.9%), multilocular cystic (2.0%), sarcomatoid dedifferentiation (0.2%), and collecting-duct histologic subtypes (0.2%) were identified. Advanced age was associated with a lower rate of FG1–2 clear cell histologic subtype (70.8%–50.3%) but higher rates of FG1–2 papillary (11.1%–23.9%) and chromophobe histologic subtypes (6.2%–8.5%). Overall, 14.5% individuals harbored FG3–4 clear cell (9.8%) or FG3–4 papillary histologic subtypes (4.8%), and both were more prevalent in men. FG3–4 clear-cell and FG3–4 papillary histologic subtypes increased with age, more so in women than in men. The overall rate of synchronous metastases was 0.4% and ranged from 0 in the multilocular cystic subtype to 0.9% in the FG3–4 papillary histologic subtype, respectively, except for 13.8% in the sarcomatoid dedifferentiation histologic subtype. Conclusions: Most T1a 0- to 2-cm renal cell carcinoma represents the low-grade clear-cell or low-grade papillary histologic subtype, with an FG3–4 minority. Even in patients with the FG3–4 histologic subtype, rates of synchronous metastases are virtually zero.

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Lara Franziska Stolzenbach, Giuseppe Rosiello, Angela Pecoraro, Carlotta Palumbo, Stefano Luzzago, Marina Deuker, Zhe Tian, Anne-Sophie Knipper, Raisa Pompe, Kevin C. Zorn, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Felix K.H. Chun, Markus Graefen, Fred Saad, and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Background: Misclassification rates defined as upgrading, upstaging, and upgrading and/or upstaging have not been tested in contemporary Black patients relative to White patients who fulfilled criteria for very-low-risk, low-risk, or favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer. This study aimed to address this void. Methods: Within the SEER database (2010–2015), we focused on patients with very low, low, and favorable intermediate risk for prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy and had available stage and grade information. Descriptive analyses, temporal trend analyses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Overall, 4,704 patients with very low risk (701 Black vs 4,003 White), 17,785 with low risk (2,696 Black vs 15,089 White), and 11,040 with favorable intermediate risk (1,693 Black vs 9,347 White) were identified. Rates of upgrading and/or upstaging in Black versus White patients were respectively 42.1% versus 37.7% (absolute Δ = +4.4%; P<.001) in those with very low risk, 48.6% versus 46.0% (absolute Δ = +2.6%; P<.001) in those with low risk, and 33.8% versus 35.3% (absolute Δ = –1.5%; P=.05) in those with favorable intermediate risk. Conclusions: Rates of misclassification were particularly elevated in patients with very low risk and low risk, regardless of race, and ranged from 33.8% to 48.6%. Recalibration of very-low-, low-, and, to a lesser extent, favorable intermediate-risk active surveillance criteria may be required. Finally, our data indicate that Black patients may be given the same consideration as White patients when active surveillance is an option. However, further validations should ideally follow.

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Marina Deuker, Giuseppe Rosiello, Lara Franziska Stolzenbach, Thomas Martin, Claudia Collà Ruvolo, Luigi Nocera, Zhe Tian, Frederik C. Roos, Andreas Becker, Luis A. Kluth, Derya Tilki, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Fred Saad, Felix K.H. Chun, and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Background: The distribution of metastatic sites in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is not well-known. Consequently, the effects of sex and age on the location of metastases is also unknown. This study sought to investigate age- and sex-related differences in the distribution of metastases in patients with UTUC. Materials and Methods: Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2000–2015), we identified 1,340 patients with metastatic UTUC. Sites of metastasis were assessed according to age (≤63, 64–72, 73–79, and ≥80 years) and sex. Comparison was performed with trend and chi-square tests. Results: Of 1,340 patients with metastatic UTUC, 790 (59.0%) were men (median age, 71 years) and 550 (41.0%) were women (median age, 74 years). The lung was the most common site of metastases in men and women (28.2% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by bone in men (22.3% vs 18.0% of women) and liver in women (24.4% vs 20.5% of men). Increasing age was associated with decreasing rates of brain metastasis in men (from 6.5% to 2.9%; P=.03) and women (from 5.9% to 0.7%; P=.01). Moreover, increasing age in women, but not in men, was associated with decreasing rates of lung (from 33.3% to 24.3%; P=.02), lymph node (from 28.9% to 15.8%; P=.01), and bone metastases (from 22.2% to 10.5%; P=.02). Finally, rates of metastases in multiple organs did not vary with age or sex (65.2% in men vs 66.5% in women). Conclusions: Lung, bone, and liver metastases are the most common metastatic sites in both sexes. However, the distribution of metastases varies according to sex and age. These observations apply to everyday clinical practice and may be used, for example, to advocate for universal bone imaging in patients with UTUC. Moreover, our findings may also be used for design considerations of randomized trials.