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Michael D. Stubblefield, Harold J. Burstein, Allen W. Burton, Christian M. Custodio, Gary E. Deng, Maria Ho, Larry Junck, G. Stephen Morris, Judith A. Paice, Sudhakar Tummala and Jamie H. Von Roenn

Neuropathy is a common, often debilitating complication of cancer and its treatment. Effective management of this disorder depends on early diagnosis and an understanding of its underlying causes in the individual patient. In January 2009, NCCN gathered a multidisciplinary group to review the literature and discuss intervention strategies currently available to patients as well as areas that require research efforts. The task force, which comprised experts in anesthesiology, medical oncology, neurology, neuro-oncology, neurophysiology, nursing, pain management, and rehabilitation, was charged with the goal of outlining recommendations for the possible prevention, diagnosis, and management of neuropathy. This report documents the proceedings of this meeting with a general background on neuropathy and neuropathy in oncology, followed by discussions on challenges and research issues, evaluation criteria, and management of different symptoms associated with this disorder.

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Donald A. Podoloff, Douglas W. Ball, Edgar Ben-Josef, Al B. Benson III, Steven J. Cohen, R. Edward Coleman, Dominique Delbeke, Maria Ho, David H. Ilson, Gregory P. Kalemkerian, Richard J. Lee, Jay S. Loeffler, Homer A. Macapinlac, Robert J. Morgan Jr., Barry Alan Siegel, Seema Singhal, Douglas S. Tyler and Richard J. Wong

Use of PET is widespread and increasing in the United States, mainly for oncologic applications. In November 2006, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) gathered a panel of experts to review the literature and develop clinical recommendations for using PET scans in lymphoma and non–small cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancers. However, because its use is not restricted to these diseases, and evidence is accumulating for its application in other types of cancers, NCCN convened a second meeting in December 2008 to expand on the initial report. A multidisciplinary panel met to discuss the current data on PET application for various tumor types, including genitourinary, gynecologic, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, thyroid, brain, small cell lung, gastric, and esophageal cancers, and sarcoma and myeloma. This report summarizes the proceedings of this meeting, including discussions of the background of PET, the role of PET in oncology, principles of PET use, emerging applications, and possible future developments.

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Christopher K. Bichakjian, Thomas Olencki, Murad Alam, James S. Andersen, Daniel Berg, Glen M. Bowen, Richard T. Cheney, Gregory A. Daniels, L. Frank Glass, Roy C. Grekin, Kenneth Grossman, Alan L. Ho, Karl D. Lewis, Daniel D. Lydiatt, William H. Morrison, Kishwer S. Nehal, Kelly C. Nelson, Paul Nghiem, Clifford S. Perlis, Ashok R. Shaha, Wade L. Thorstad, Malika Tuli, Marshall M. Urist, Timothy S. Wang, Andrew E. Werchniak, Sandra L. Wong, John A. Zic, Karin G. Hoffmann, Nicole R. McMillian and Maria Ho

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive cutaneous tumor that combines the local recurrence rates of infiltrative nonmelanoma skin cancer with the regional and distant metastatic rates of thick melanoma. The NCCN Guidelines for Merkel Cell Carcinoma provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this aggressive disease based on clinical evidence and expert consensus. This version includes revisions regarding the use of PET/CT imaging and the addition of a new section on the principles of pathology to provide guidance on the analysis, interpretation, and reporting of pathology results.

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Christopher K. Bichakjian, Thomas Olencki, Murad Alam, James S. Andersen, Daniel Berg, Glen M. Bowen, Richard T. Cheney, Gregory A. Daniels, L. Frank Glass, Roy C. Grekin, Kenneth Grossman, Alan L. Ho, Karl D. Lewis, Daniel D. Lydiatt, William H. Morrison, Kishwer S. Nehal, Kelly C. Nelson, Paul Nghiem, Clifford S. Perlis, Ashok R. Shaha, Wade L. Thorstad, Malika Tuli, Marshall M. Urist, Timothy S. Wang, Andrew E. Werchniak, Sandra L. Wong, John A. Zic, Nicole McMillian, Karin Hoffman and Maria Ho

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon soft tissue tumor characterized by a relatively high risk of local recurrence and low risk of metastasis. The NCCN Guidelines for DFSP provide multidisciplinary recommendations on the management of patients with this rare disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the addition of the Principles of Pathology section, which provides recommendations on the pathologic assessment of DFSP. Because DFSP can mimic other lesions, immunohistochemical studies are often required to establish diagnosis. Cytogenetic testing for the characteristic translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13) can also be valuable in the differential diagnosis of DFSP with other histologically similar tumors.

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Jeffrey Crawford, James Armitage, Lodovico Balducci, Pamela Sue Becker, Douglas W. Blayney, Spero R. Cataland, Mark L. Heaney, Susan Hudock, Dwight D. Kloth, David J. Kuter, Gary H. Lyman, Brandon McMahon, Hope S. Rugo, Ayman A. Saad, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Sepideh Shayani, David P. Steensma, Mahsa Talbott, Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Peter Westervelt, Michael Westmoreland, Mary Dwyer and Maria Ho

Febrile neutropenia, a common side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with cancer, can result in prolonged hospitalization and broad-spectrum antibiotic use, often prompting treatment delays or dose reductions of drug regimens. Prophylactic use of myeloid growth factors (mainly the colony-stimulating factors filgrastim and pegfilgrastim) in patients of heightened risk can reduce the severity and duration of febrile neutropenia. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Myeloid Growth Factors provide recommendations on the use of these agents mainly in the oncology setting based on clinical evidence and expert consensus. This version includes revisions surrounding the issue of timing of pegfilgrastim administration. It also includes new sections on tbo-filgrastim, a recently approved agent that is biologically similar to filgrastim, and the role of myeloid growth factors in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting

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Peter E. Clark, Neeraj Agarwal, Matthew C. Biagioli, Mario A. Eisenberger, Richard E. Greenberg, Harry W. Herr, Brant A. Inman, Deborah A. Kuban, Timothy M. Kuzel, Subodh M. Lele, Jeff Michalski, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Jerome P. Richie, Wade J. Sexton, William U. Shipley, Eric J. Small, Philippe E. Spiess, Donald L. Trump, Geoffrey Wile, Timothy G. Wilson, Mary Dwyer and Maria Ho

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the United States. Urothelial carcinoma that originates from the urinary bladder is the most common subtype. These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of non–muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. This version of the guidelines provides extensive reorganization and updates on the principles of chemotherapy management.

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Peter E. Clark, Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Matthew C. Biagioli, Mario A. Eisenberger, Richard E. Greenberg, Harry W. Herr, Brant A. Inman, Deborah A. Kuban, Timothy M. Kuzel, Subodh M. Lele, Jeff Michalski, Lance Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Jerome P. Richie, Wade J. Sexton, William U. Shipley, Eric J. Small, Donald L. Trump, Geoffrey Wile, Timothy G. Wilson, Mary Dwyer and Maria Ho

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus.

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Louis Burt Nabors, Mario Ammirati, Philip J. Bierman, Henry Brem, Nicholas Butowski, Marc C. Chamberlain, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Robert A. Fenstermaker, Allan Friedman, Mark R. Gilbert, Deneen Hesser, Matthias Holdhoff, Larry Junck, Ronald Lawson, Jay S. Loeffler, Moshe H. Maor, Paul L. Moots, Tara Morrison, Maciej M. Mrugala, Herbert B. Newton, Jana Portnow, Jeffrey J. Raizer, Lawrence Recht, Dennis C. Shrieve, Allen K. Sills Jr, David Tran, Nam Tran, Frank D. Vrionis, Patrick Y. Wen, Nicole McMillian and Maria Ho

Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN. org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes.

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Louis Burt Nabors, Jana Portnow, Mario Ammirati, Henry Brem, Paul Brown, Nicholas Butowski, Marc C. Chamberlain, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Robert A. Fenstermaker, Allan Friedman, Mark R. Gilbert, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Deneen Hesser, Matthias Holdhoff, Larry Junck, Ronald Lawson, Jay S. Loeffler, Paul L. Moots, Maciej M. Mrugala, Herbert B. Newton, Jeffrey J. Raizer, Lawrence Recht, Nicole Shonka, Dennis C. Shrieve, Allen K. Sills Jr, Lode J. Swinnen, David Tran, Nam Tran, Frank D. Vrionis, Patrick Yung Wen, Nicole R. McMillian and Maria Ho

The NCCN Guidelines for Central Nervous System Cancers provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with cancers of the central nervous system. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight recent updates regarding the management of metastatic brain tumors using radiation therapy. Use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is no longer limited to patients with 3 or fewer lesions, because data suggest that total disease burden, rather than number of lesions, is predictive of survival benefits associated with the technique. SRS is increasingly becoming an integral part of management of patients with controlled, low-volume brain metastases.

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Peter R. Carroll, J. Kellogg Parsons, Gerald Andriole, Robert R. Bahnson, Daniel A. Barocas, William J. Catalona, Douglas M. Dahl, John W. Davis, Jonathan I. Epstein, Ruth B. Etzioni, Veda N. Giri, George P. Hemstreet III, Mark H. Kawachi, Paul H. Lange, Kevin R. Loughlin, William Lowrance, Paul Maroni, James Mohler, Todd M. Morgan, Robert B. Nadler, Michael Poch, Chuck Scales, Terrence M. Shanefelt, Andrew J. Vickers, Robert Wake, Dorothy A. Shead and Maria Ho

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for men choosing to participate in an early detection program for prostate cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight notable recent updates. Overall, the 2014 update represents a more streamlined and concise set of recommendations. The panel stratified the age ranges at which initiating testing for prostate cancer should be considered. Indications for biopsy include both a cutpoint and the use of multiple risk variables in combination. In addition to other biomarkers of specificity, the Prostate Health Index has been included to aid biopsy decisions in certain men, given recent FDA approvals.