The role of radiotherapy in treating local and regional disease in patients with clinically localized Merkel cell carcinoma remains controversial. Given the lack of randomized evidence and patient and treatment heterogeneity in published retrospective series, sound clinical judgment is required to assess individual patient risk factors. Although many single-institution series have shown that adjuvant radiation to the primary tumor site decreases the risk for local and regional failure, evidence is emerging that there is a cohort of patients at relatively low risk for local recurrence after wide local excision alone. Node dissection, radiotherapy, and combined modality treatment may all play a role in managing occult or clinically evident nodal disease, depending on the anatomic location of draining lymphatics and the extent of microscopic or macroscopic disease. For select patients, primary radiotherapy is a reasonable option with a low risk for local or regional recurrence.
Roy H. Decker and Lynn D. Wilson
Gabrielle W. Peters, Sarah J. Gao, Christin Knowlton, Andrew Zhang, Suzanne B. Evans, Susan Higgins, Lynn D. Wilson, Nicholas Saltmarsh, Martha Picone, and Meena S. Moran
Andrew D. Zelenetz, Leo I. Gordon, William G. Wierda, Jeremy S. Abramson, Ranjana H. Advani, C. Babis Andreadis, Nancy Bartlett, John C. Byrd, Myron S. Czuczman, Luis E. Fayad, Richard I. Fisher, Martha J. Glenn, Thomas M. Habermann, Nancy Lee Harris, Richard T. Hoppe, Steven M. Horwitz, Christopher R. Kelsey, Youn H. Kim, Susan Krivacic, Ann S. LaCasce, Auayporn Nademanee, Pierluigi Porcu, Oliver Press, Rachel Rabinovitch, Nishitha Reddy, Erin Reid, Ayman A. Saad, Lubomir Sokol, Lode J. Swinnen, Christina Tsien, Julie M. Vose, Lynn Wilson, Joachim Yahalom, Nadeem Zafar, Mary Dwyer, and Hema Sundar
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are different manifestations of the same disease, which are managed in the same way. The advent of novel monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab and obinutuzumab) led to the development of effective chemoimmunotherapy regimens. The recently approved small molecule kinase inhibitors (ibrutinib and idelalisib) are effective treatment options for CLL in elderly patients with decreased tolerance for aggressive regimens and in patients with poor prognostic features who do not benefit from conventional chemoimmunotherapy regimens. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas describes the recent specific to the incorporation of recently approved targeted therapies for the management of patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed or refractory CLL/SLL.