Multiple myeloma is a very heterogeneous disease. Despite advances in diagnostics and therapeutics, a subset of patients still experiences abbreviated responses to therapy, frequent relapses, and short survival and is considered to have high-risk multiple myeloma (HRMM). Stage III diagnosis according to the International Staging System; the presence of del(17p), t(4;14), or t(14;16) by fluorescence in situ hybridization; certain gene expression patterns; high serum lactic dehydrogenase level; and the presence of extramedullary disease at diagnosis are all considered indicators of HRMM. More recent evidence shows that patients who experience response to therapy but with a high burden of measurable residual disease or persistence of abnormal FDG uptake on PET/CT scan after initial therapy also have unfavorable outcomes, shaping the concept of dynamic risk assessment. Triplet therapy with proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and corticosteroids and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation remain the pillars of HRMM therapy. Recent evidence indicates a benefit of immunotherapy with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies in HRMM. Future trials will inform the impact of novel immunotherapeutic approaches, including T-cell engagers, CAR T cells, and nonimmunotherapeutic approaches in HRMM. Those agents are likely to be deployed early in the disease course in the setting of risk- and response-adapted trials.
Luciano J. Costa and Saad Z. Usmani
John A. Thompson, Bryan J. Schneider, Julie Brahmer, Stephanie Andrews, Philippe Armand, Shailender Bhatia, Lihua E. Budde, Luciano Costa, Marianne Davies, David Dunnington, Marc S. Ernstoff, Matthew Frigault, Brianna Hoffner, Christopher J. Hoimes, Mario Lacouture, Frederick Locke, Matthew Lunning, Nisha A. Mohindra, Jarushka Naidoo, Anthony J. Olszanski, Olalekan Oluwole, Sandip P. Patel, Sunil Reddy, Mabel Ryder, Bianca Santomasso, Scott Shofer, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Momen Wahidi, Yinghong Wang, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, and Jillian L. Scavone
The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel is an interdisciplinary group of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions and ASCO, consisting of medical and hematologic oncologists with expertise in a wide array of disease sites, and experts from the fields of dermatology, gastroenterology, neuro-oncology, nephrology, emergency medicine, cardiology, oncology nursing, and patient advocacy. Several panel representatives are members of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). The initial version of the NCCN Guidelines was designed in general alignment with recommendations published by ASCO and SITC. The content featured in this issue is an excerpt of the recommendations for managing toxicity related to immune checkpoint blockade and a review of existing evidence. For the full version of the NCCN Guidelines, including recommendations for managing toxicities related to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, visit NCCN.org.
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
John A. Thompson, Bryan J. Schneider, Julie Brahmer, Stephanie Andrews, Philippe Armand, Shailender Bhatia, Lihua E. Budde, Luciano Costa, Marianne Davies, David Dunnington, Marc S. Ernstoff, Matthew Frigault, Benjamin H. Kaffenberger, Matthew Lunning, Suzanne McGettigan, Jordan McPherson, Nisha A. Mohindra, Jarushka Naidoo, Anthony J. Olszanski, Olalekan Oluwole, Sandip P. Patel, Nathan Pennell, Sunil Reddy, Mabel Ryder, Bianca Santomasso, Scott Shofer, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Yinghong Wang, Ryan M. Weight, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Griselda Zuccarino-Catania, and Anita Engh
The NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities provide interdisciplinary guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) resulting from cancer immunotherapy. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe symptoms that may be caused by an irAE and should trigger further investigation, and summarize the NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel discussions for the 2020 update to the guidelines regarding immune checkpoint inhibitor–related diarrhea/colitis and cardiovascular irAEs.