Substantial research efforts have focused on methods of treating and preventing oxaliplatin-associated neuropathy, the dose-limiting toxicity associated with this drug. Administration of intravenous calcium and magnesium (CaMg) before and after oxaliplatin has been the most studied approach to preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Although early reports demonstrated potential benefit, subsequent larger trials failed to confirm the efficacy of CaMg in preventing this adverse effect. This article explores how accumulating evidence for and against the use of CaMg for preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy has impacted clinical practice.
Deirdre R. Pachman, Kathryn Ruddy, Lindsey R. Sangaralingham, Axel Grothey, Nilay D. Shah, Andreas S. Beutler, Joleen M. Hubbard and Charles L. Loprinzi
Ciara C. O'Sullivan, Holly K. Van Houten, Lindsey R. Sangaralingham, Alexis D. Leal, Shivani Shinde, Hongfang Liu, David Ettinger, Charles L. Loprinzi and Kathryn J. Ruddy
Purpose: Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is essential to preserve quality of life in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Recently, new drugs (eg, fosaprepitant, and the newer neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists [NK1RAs] rolapitant and netupitant) and updated antiemetic guidelines have emerged. However, trends in real-world antiemetic use are understudied. Methods: We identified patients treated with an initial dose of HEC (either cisplatin or doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) from January 2006 to June 2016 using administrative claims data from a US commercial insurance database (OptumLabs). Antiemetic use was determined by identifying intravenous/oral/transdermal administration within ±1 day of the chemotherapy dose and/or prescription fill from 14 days before to 7 days after chemotherapy. We used descriptive statistics to present patient demographics, chemotherapy drugs administered, presence/absence of a central intravenous access device, and antiemetics used. Results: A total of 23,030 patients (67.3%) received doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide and 11,206 (32.7%) received cisplatin. Dexamethasone and 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) were consistently used by 85% to 95% of patients, consistent with guideline recommendations. NK1RAs were underused early on, but use increased to approximately 80% in the most recently evaluated year. Fosaprepitant use increased precipitously starting in 2009, preceding a sharp decrease in aprepitant use beginning in 2011. Receipt of olanzapine, rolapitant, and netupitant was minimal throughout the study period. Conclusions: Dexamethasone and 5-HT3RAs were used by most patients receiving HEC, in accordance with guideline recommendations. NK1RA use was less adherent with guidelines.
Urshila Durani, Dennis Asante, Thorvardur Halfdanarson, Herbert C. Heien, Lindsey Sangaralingham, Carrie A. Thompson, Prema Peethambaram, Fernando J. Quevedo and Ronald S. Go
Background: Adherence to surveillance guidelines in resected colon cancer has significant implications for patient morbidity, cost of care, and healthcare utilization. This study measured the underuse and overuse of imaging for staging and surveillance in stage I–II colon cancer. Methods: The OptumLabs database was queried for administrative claims data on adult patients with stage I–II colon cancer who underwent surgery alone in 2008 through 2016. Use of PET and CT imaging was evaluated during both initial staging (n=6,921) and surveillance for patients with at least 1 year of follow-up (n=5,466). “High use” was defined as >2 CT abdominal/pelvic (CT A/P) or PET scans per year during surveillance. Results: Overall, 27% of patients with stage I–II colon cancer did not have a staging CT A/P or PET scan and 95% did not have a CT chest scan. However, rates of staging CT A/P and CT chest scans increased from 62.0% (2008) to 74.8% (2016) and from 2.3% (2008) to 7.1% (2016), respectively. Staging PET use was overall very low (5.2%). During surveillance, approximately 30% of patients received a CT A/P or PET and 5% received a CT chest scan within the first year after surgery. Of patients who had surveillance CT A/P or PET scans, the proportion receiving >2 scans within the first year (high use) declined from 32.4% (2008) to 9.6% (2016) (P = .01). Conclusions: Although PET use remains appropriately low, many patients with stage I–II colon cancer do not receive appropriate staging and surveillance CT chest scans. Among those who do receive these scans during surveillance, high use has declined significantly over time.
Kathryn J. Ruddy, Lindsey Sangaralingham, Rachel A. Freedman, Sarah S. Mougalian, Heather Neuman, Caprice Greenberg, Ahmedin Jemal, Narjust Duma, Tufia C. Haddad, Valerie Lemaine, Karthik Ghosh, Tina J. Hieken, Katie Hunt, Celine Vachon, Cary P. Gross and Nilay D. Shah
Background: Guidelines recommend annual mammography after curative-intent treatment for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to assess contemporary patterns of breast imaging after breast cancer treatment. Methods: Administrative claims data were used to identify privately insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries with nonmetastatic breast cancer who had residual breast tissue (not bilateral mastectomy) after breast surgery between January 2005 and May 2015. We calculated the proportion of patients who had a mammogram, MRI, both, or neither during each of 5 subsequent 13-month periods. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics, healthcare use, and breast imaging in the first and fifth years after surgery. Results: A total of 27,212 patients were followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 1.8–4.6) after definitive breast cancer surgery. In year 1, 78% were screened using mammography alone, 1% using MRI alone, and 8% using both tests; 13% did not undergo either. By year 5, the proportion of the remaining cohort (n=4,790) who had no breast imaging was 19%. Older age was associated with an increased likelihood of mammography and a decreased likelihood of MRI during the first and fifth years. Black race, mastectomy, chemotherapy, and no MRI at baseline were all associated with a decreased likelihood of both types of imaging. Conclusions: Even in an insured cohort, a substantial proportion of breast cancer survivors do not undergo annual surveillance breast imaging, particularly as time passes. Understanding factors associated with imaging in cancer survivors may help improve adherence to survivorship care guidelines.