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Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: What (Little) Do We Know?

Lin-Chi Chen, William D. Travis, and Lee M. Krug

Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are a distinct subset of tumors composing approximately 20% of all lung cancers. The major categories of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and the more common small cell lung cancer. They are classified into different categories in the 2004 World Health Organization system, but share structural and morphologic features. Despite these shared features, their clinical characteristics range from indolent to aggressive, and therefore the approach to treatment depends on the histologic subtype. This article discusses the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathologic characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of this spectrum of diseases.

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HSR23-105: Real-World Dosing Patterns in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Positive (ALK+) Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Treated With Brigatinib in the Front-Line (FL) Setting in the United States: A Claims Database Analysis

Edmund W. Tai, Huamao Mark Lin, Yanyu Wu, Yin Wan, Magdaliz Gorritz, Xiaoyu Zhou, Chi-Chang Chen, and Yuanbin Chen

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KRAS Testing, Tumor Location, and Survival in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: SEER 2010–2013

Mary E. Charlton, Amanda R. Kahl, Alissa A. Greenbaum, Jordan J. Karlitz, Chi Lin, Charles F. Lynch, and Vivien W. Chen

Purpose: KRAS mutations and tumor location have been associated with response to targeted therapy among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) in various trials. This study performed the first population-based examination of associations between KRAS mutations, tumor location, and survival, and assessed factors associated with documented KRAS testing. Methods: Patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the colon/rectum diagnosed from 2010 to 2013 were extracted from SEER data. Analyses of patient characteristics, KRAS testing, and tumor location were conducted using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between KRAS mutations, tumor location, and risk of all-cause death. Results: Of 22,542 patients, 30% received KRAS testing, and 44% of these had mutations. Those tested tended to be younger, married, and metropolitan area residents, and have private insurance or Medicare. Rates of KRAS testing also varied by registry (range, 20%–46%). Patients with right-sided colon cancer (vs left-sided) tended to be older, female, and black; have mucinous, KRAS-mutant tumors; and have a greater risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22–1.32). KRAS mutations were not associated with greater risk of death in the overall population; however, they were associated with greater risk of death among patients with left-sided colon cancer (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05–1.33). Conclusions: This large population-based study showed that among patients initially diagnosed with stage IV CRC, right-sided colon cancer was associated with greater risk of death compared with left-sided cancer, and KRAS mutations were only associated with risk of death in left-sided colon cancer. An unexpected finding was that among patients with stage IV disease, right-sided cancer was more commonly seen in black patients versus whites. Future studies should further explore these associations and determine the role of biology versus treatment differences. In addition, use of KRAS testing is increasing, but there is wide geographic variation wherein disparities related to insurance coverage and rurality may warrant further study.

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Comparison of Pathologic Stage in Patients Receiving Esophagectomy With and Without Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy for Esophageal SCC

Bing-Yen Wang, Ping-Yi Lin, Shiao-Chi Wu, Hui-Shan Chen, Po-Kuei Hsu, Chih-Shiun Shih, Chao-Yu Liu, Chia-Chuan Liu, and Yao-Li Chen

The prognostic value for the post-chemoradiation therapy (CRT) pathologic stage is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the pathologic stage in patients undergoing esophagectomy with and without preoperative CRT for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study retrospectively reviewed the data from 2151 patients with ESCC who underwent esophagectomy with or without preoperative CRT between 2008 and 2011 in Taiwan. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of patients treated with primary surgery without prior treatments (n=1301), and group B consisted of patients receiving preoperative CRT followed by esophagectomy (n=850). In group A, 679 patients received surgery alone, 92 received postoperative chemotherapy, 416 received postoperative chemoradiation therapy, and 114 received postoperative radiation therapy. In group A, the 3-year survival rates by pathologic stage were 82.2% for stage 0, 67.6% for stage I, 50.7% for stage II, 21.5% for stage III, and 14.8% for stage IV (P<.001). In group B, the 3-year survival rates of post-CRT pathologic stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 59.4%, 46.0%, 40.3%, 19.1%, and 8.2%, respectively (P<.001). In multivariate analysis, the pathologic T, N, and M were all independent prognostic factors in both group A (esophagectomy alone) and B (CRT plus esophagectomy). The current, 7th edition of the esophageal TNM staging system could adequately stratify prognostic groups in patients with squamous cell carcinoma who were treated with preoperative CRT and esophagectomy.