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Role of Interventional Radiology in the Treatment of Patients with Neuroendocrine Metastases in the Liver

Larry K. Kvols, Kiran K. Turaga, Jonathan Strosberg, and Junsung Choi

Management of liver metastasis from neuroendocrine tumors routinely includes an interventional radiologist. Hepatic artery embolization, either bland (transarterial embolization) or with chemotherapy (transarterial chemoembolization), has been shown to improve response rates in neuroendocrine metastases to the liver. Radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and percutaneous alcohol ablation are important adjuncts or alternative treatments to surgical debulking. In this article, the authors examine important techniques in the armamentarium of the interventional radiologist.