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Venkata Pokuri, Norbert Sule, Yousef Soofi, Bo Xu, Khurshid Guru and Saby George

Randomized trials support the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer based on a noted survival advantage, which appeared to be strongly related to downstaging of the cancer to pT0 (complete pathologic response). This report presents a case of an unusual mast cell response along with bladder wall thickening after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. However, the final cystectomy specimen did not reveal any residual tumor (pT0). The authors hypothesize that neoadjuvant chemotherapy could have caused the diffuse mast cell response, and that this profound inflammatory response can be used as a biomarker of complete response to chemotherapy.

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Hyung L. Kim, Marvin R. Puymon, Maochun Qin, Khurshid Guru and James L. Mohler

Prostate cancer can have a long and indolent course, and management without curative therapy should be considered in select patients. When counseling patients, a useful way to convey the risk for death from competing causes is to estimate their lifetime risk for dying from prostate cancer. Double-decrement life tables were constructed to calculate age-specific death rates using the death probabilities from the Social Security Administration life tables and Gleason score–specific mortality rates reported from pre-PSA cohort study. The lifetime risk for prostate cancer death was calculated. Life tables provided life expectancy and risk for prostate cancer death based on age at diagnosis. For example, 60-year-old patient with a Gleason score 6, 7, or 8 tumor had an overall life expectancy of 14.4, 10.2, or 6.6 years, respectively. The risk for prostate cancer death during the expected years of life was 33%, 49%, or 57%, respectively. If a 10-year lead-time bias was assumed for PSA detection, the risks for death from prostate cancer decreased to 16%, 26%, or 37%, respectively. If the patient was in the bottom quartile for overall health and disease was detected by prostate examination, the risk for death from prostate cancer was 21%, 32%, or 40%, respectively. A Web-based tool for performing these calculations is available at http://www.roswellpark.org/Patient_Care/Specialized_Services/Prostate_Cancer_Estimator.html. Life tables can be created to estimate overall life expectancy and risk for prostate cancer death, and to assist with decision-making when considering management without curative therapy.

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Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Peter E. Clark, Tracy M. Downs, Jason A. Efstathiou, Thomas W. Flaig, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Noah Hahn, Harry W. Herr, Christopher Hoimes, Brant A. Inman, Masahito Jimbo, A. Karim Kader, Subodh M. Lele, Joshua J. Meeks, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Mark A. Preston, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Guru Sonpavde, Jonathan Tward, Geoffrey Wile, Mary A. Dwyer and Lisa A. Gurski

This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Bladder Cancer focuses on systemic therapy for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer, as substantial revisions were made in the 2017 updates, such as new recommendations for nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. The complete version of the NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer addresses additional aspects of the management of bladder cancer, including non–muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer and nonurothelial histologies, as well as staging, evaluation, and follow-up.

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Peter E. Clark, Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Jason A. Efstathiou, Thomas W. Flaig, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Noah Hahn, Harry W. Herr, Christopher Hoimes, Brant A. Inman, A. Karim Kader, Adam S. Kibel, Timothy M. Kuzel, Subodh M. Lele, Joshua J. Meeks, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Daniel Petrylak, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Guru Sonpavde, Jonathan Tward, Geoffrey Wile, Mary A. Dwyer and Courtney Smith

These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss the major recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Bladder Cancer based on the review of the evidence in conjunction with the expert opinion of the panel. Recent updates include (1) refining the recommendation of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin, (2) strengthening the recommendations for perioperative systemic chemotherapy, and (3) incorporating immunotherapy into second-line therapy for locally advanced or metastatic disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights further discuss factors that affect integration of these recommendations into clinical practice.

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Thomas W. Flaig, Philippe E. Spiess, Neeraj Agarwal, Rick Bangs, Stephen A. Boorjian, Mark K. Buyyounouski, Tracy M. Downs, Jason A. Efstathiou, Terence Friedlander, Richard E. Greenberg, Khurshid A. Guru, Noah Hahn, Harry W. Herr, Christopher Hoimes, Brant A. Inman, Masahito Jimbo, A. Karim Kader, Subodh M. Lele, Joshua J. Meeks, Jeff Michalski, Jeffrey S. Montgomery, Lance C. Pagliaro, Sumanta K. Pal, Anthony Patterson, Daniel P. Petrylak, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Kamal S. Pohar, Michael P. Porter, Mark A. Preston, Wade J. Sexton, Arlene O. Siefker-Radtke, Jonathan Tward, Geoffrey Wile, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Mary A. Dwyer and Lisa A. Gurski

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Bladder Cancer provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of patients with bladder cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss important updates to the 2018 version of the guidelines, including implications of the 8th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual on treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer and incorporating newly approved immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies into treatment options for patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease.