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Keith D. Eaton and Renato G. Martins

Recent trials have shown a benefit with maintenance therapy after 4 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy. These trials have shown improvement in progression-free survival using agents approved as second-line therapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Trials using erlotinib and pemetrexed showed improvement in overall survival. Consideration of trial design is critical for the interpretation of these results. Data on quality of life and cost have not been presented, but will ultimately be important in evaluating the usefulness of these approaches.

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Stacey Shiovitz and Keith D. Eaton

A 66-year-old woman presented with newly diagnosed stage IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a large adrenal metastasis. She initially had flu-like symptoms and dyspnea and was found to have a right upper lobe (RUL) lung nodule. Chest CT showed a 1.4-cm spiculated RUL lung nodule, peripheral right lung nodule, right perihilar mass, and 10.9-cm left adrenal mass. PET/CT showed enhancement of the RUL nodule, hilar mass, and left adrenal mass. She presented for evaluation of treatment options. This case was thought to represent an instance of oligometastatic stage IV NSCLC. Literature suggests that a select patient population with otherwise resectable disease may benefit from surgical resection of a lung primary and the isolated metastasis with improved survival. This seems to be most effective in patients who have undergone a complete staging evaluation with PET scan; CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis; and a brain MRI revealing T1–2, N0–1, M-oligo disease. This radical approach should be reserved for patients with potentially curative disease based on the staging evaluation and who are otherwise good surgical candidates.

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Annika M. Gustafson, Deborah J. Goldfrank, William A. Dunson, Daniel L. Mulkerin, Rebecca L. Caires and Keith D. Eaton

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David S. Ettinger, Mark Agulnik, Justin M. M. Cates, Mihaela Cristea, Crystal S. Denlinger, Keith D. Eaton, Panagiotis M. Fidias, David Gierada, Jon P. Gockerman, Charles R. Handorf, Renuka Iyer, Renato Lenzi, John Phay, Asif Rashid, Leonard Saltz, Lawrence N. Shulman, Jeffrey B. Smerage, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Jonathan S. Zager and Weining (Ken) Zhen

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David S. Ettinger, Charles R. Handorf, Mark Agulnik, Daniel W. Bowles, Justin M. Cates, Mihaela Cristea, Efrat Dotan, Keith D. Eaton, Panagiotis M. Fidias, David Gierada, G. Weldon Gilcrease, Kelly Godby, Renuka Iyer, Renato Lenzi, John Phay, Asif Rashid, Leonard Saltz, Richard B. Schwab, Lawrence N. Shulman, Jeffrey B. Smerage, Marvaretta M. Stevenson, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Jonathan S. Zager, Weining (Ken) Zhen, Mary Anne Bergman and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Occult Primary tumors provide recommendations for the evaluation, workup, management, and follow-up of patients with occult primary tumors (cancers of unknown primary). These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points of the 2014 NCCN Occult Primary panel meeting. The panel discussed gene expression profiling (GEP) for the identification of the tissue of origin and concluded that, although GEP has a diagnostic benefit, a clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. The panel recommends against GEP as standard management, although 20% of the panel believes the diagnostic benefit of GEP warrants its routine use. In addition, the panel discussed testing for actionable mutations (eg, ALK) to help guide choice of therapy, but declined to add this recommendation.