Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author: Joseph Chao x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Kwang-Yu Chang, Jang-Yang Chang, Joseph Chao, and Yun Yen

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and one of the most fatal diseases despite modern medical treatment. Because correct staging and surveillance of neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer is mandatory for further treatment planning, choosing a modern imaging system is important. The development of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) has provided alternate means of tumor detection distinct from more conventional methods. This modality has extraordinary performance in detecting locoregional lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease, and has been introduced as a powerful tool in many guidelines. However, some factors still lead to false-negative or -positive results, raising questions of its accuracy. This article discusses the clinical efficacy of PET in staging and surveillance of neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer, comparing its accuracy with conventional imaging modalities.

Full access

Richard Li, Wei-Hsien Hou, Joseph Chao, Yanghee Woo, Scott Glaser, Arya Amini, Rebecca A. Nelson, and Yi-Jen Chen

Background: Limited data are available to guide management of patients with stage I–III gastric cancer not undergoing potentially curative surgical resection. We compared survival outcomes associated with chemotherapy alone versus chemoradiation (CRT) in the treatment of nonmetastatic gastric cancer. Methods: Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2015 were identified using the National Cancer Database. Patients were excluded if they had surgery, metastatic disease, or T0, Tis, or T1a disease. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of CRT use. Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to compare overall survival (OS) between chemotherapy alone and CRT in overall and propensity score–matched cohorts. Results: We identified 4,795 patients with stage I–III gastric adenocarcinoma who did not undergo surgery, at a median follow-up of 11.8 months. A total of 3,316 patients (69.2%) received chemotherapy alone and 1,479 patients (30.8%) received CRT. Predictors of increased CRT use were age ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.68; 95% CI, 1.43–1.99; P<.001), Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score ≥2 (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.18–1.81), and treatment at a community facility (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07–1.51; P=.006). Patients receiving CRT had a 2-year OS rate of 28.3% compared with 21.5% among those receiving chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that CRT was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77–0.89; P<.001). After propensity score matching, a persistent survival benefit was observed (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74–0.88; P<.001). Conclusions: In patients with stage I–III gastric cancer not undergoing surgical resection, CRT was associated with improved survival compared with chemotherapy alone. However, only 30.8% of patients received CRT in this setting.

Full access

Louisa Liu, Yanghee Woo, Massimo D’Apuzzo, Laleh Melstrom, Mustafa Raoof, Yu Liang, Michelle Afkhami, Stanley R. Hamilton, and Joseph Chao

Despite the use of first-line therapies like fluoropyrimidine and platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy, gastric cancer (GC) continues to carry a poor prognosis. Recent subgroup analyses of first-line phase III trials have demonstrated that patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H) metastatic GC derive significant improvement in survival rates when immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are combined with chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone. However, it remains to be seen whether the success of ICIs in the metastatic setting can be translated into earlier stages of GC with resectable disease. We report 6 cases of locally advanced, nonmetastatic MSI-H GC that all demonstrated favorable response following treatment with pembrolizumab in addition to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. With the exception of immune-related colitis in one patient, pembrolizumab was well-tolerated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported US case series of patients treated with an ICI in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced, nonmetastatic, resectable or unresectable MSI-H GC.

Full access

Jaffer A. Ajani, Thomas A. D'Amico, Khaldoun Almhanna, David J. Bentrem, Joseph Chao, Prajnan Das, Crystal S. Denlinger, Paul Fanta, Farhood Farjah, Charles S. Fuchs, Hans Gerdes, Michael Gibson, Robert E. Glasgow, James A. Hayman, Steven Hochwald, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Dawn Jaroszewski, Kimberly L. Johung, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, W. Michael Korn, Stephen Leong, Catherine Linn, A. Craig Lockhart, Quan P. Ly, Mary F. Mulcahy, Mark B. Orringer, Kyle A. Perry, George A. Poultsides, Walter J. Scott, Vivian E. Strong, Mary Kay Washington, Benny Weksler, Christopher G. Willett, Cameron D. Wright, Debra Zelman, Nicole McMillian, and Hema Sundar

Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer in the world. Several advances have been made in the staging procedures, imaging techniques, and treatment approaches. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Gastric Cancer provide an evidence- and consensus-based treatment approach for the management of patients with gastric cancer. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for staging, assessment of HER2 overexpression, systemic therapy for locally advanced or metastatic disease, and best supportive care for the prevention and management of symptoms due to advanced disease.

Full access

Jaffer A. Ajani, Thomas A. D’Amico, Khaldoun Almhanna, David J. Bentrem, Stephen Besh, Joseph Chao, Prajnan Das, Crystal Denlinger, Paul Fanta, Charles S. Fuchs, Hans Gerdes, Robert E. Glasgow, James A. Hayman, Steven Hochwald, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Dawn Jaroszewski, Kory Jasperson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, W. Michael Korn, Stephen Leong, A. Craig Lockhart, Mary F. Mulcahy, Mark B. Orringer, James A. Posey, George A. Poultsides, Aaron R. Sasson, Walter J. Scott, Vivian E. Strong, Thomas K. Varghese Jr, Mary Kay Washington, Christopher G. Willett, Cameron D. Wright, Debra Zelman, Nicole McMillian, and Hema Sundar

Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is more common in North America and Western European countries, originating mostly in the lower third of the esophagus, which often involves the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Recent randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival in patients with resectable cancer. Targeted therapies with trastuzumab and ramucirumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of advanced or metastatic EGJ adenocarcinomas. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and EGJ Cancers discusses management of locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ.

Full access

Jaffer A. Ajani, Thomas A. D’Amico, David J. Bentrem, Joseph Chao, David Cooke, Carlos Corvera, Prajnan Das, Peter C. Enzinger, Thomas Enzler, Paul Fanta, Farhood Farjah, Hans Gerdes, Michael K. Gibson, Steven Hochwald, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Rajesh N. Keswani, Sunnie Kim, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, Samuel J. Klempner, Jill Lacy, Quan P. Ly, Kristina A. Matkowskyj, Michael McNamara, Mary F. Mulcahy, Darryl Outlaw, Haeseong Park, Kyle A. Perry, Jose Pimiento, George A. Poultsides, Scott Reznik, Robert E. Roses, Vivian E. Strong, Stacey Su, Hanlin L. Wang, Georgia Wiesner, Christopher G. Willett, Danny Yakoub, Harry Yoon, Nicole McMillian, and Lenora A. Pluchino

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Over 95% of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, which are typically classified based on anatomic location and histologic type. Gastric cancer generally carries a poor prognosis because it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Systemic therapy can provide palliation, improved survival, and enhanced quality of life in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. The implementation of biomarker testing, especially analysis of HER2 status, microsatellite instability (MSI) status, and the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), has had a significant impact on clinical practice and patient care. Targeted therapies including trastuzumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab have produced encouraging results in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Palliative management, which may include systemic therapy, chemoradiation, and/or best supportive care, is recommended for all patients with unresectable or metastatic cancer. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for all patients with localized gastric cancer. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Gastric Cancer focuses on the management of unresectable locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic disease.

Full access

Jaffer A. Ajani, Thomas A. D’Amico, David J. Bentrem, Joseph Chao, Carlos Corvera, Prajnan Das, Crystal S. Denlinger, Peter C. Enzinger, Paul Fanta, Farhood Farjah, Hans Gerdes, Michael Gibson, Robert E. Glasgow, James A. Hayman, Steven Hochwald, Wayne L. Hofstetter, David H. Ilson, Dawn Jaroszewski, Kimberly L. Johung, Rajesh N. Keswani, Lawrence R. Kleinberg, Stephen Leong, Quan P. Ly, Kristina A. Matkowskyj, Michael McNamara, Mary F. Mulcahy, Ravi K. Paluri, Haeseong Park, Kyle A. Perry, Jose Pimiento, George A. Poultsides, Robert Roses, Vivian E. Strong, Georgia Wiesner, Christopher G. Willett, Cameron D. Wright, Nicole R. McMillian, and Lenora A. Pluchino

Abstract

Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histology in Eastern Europe and Asia, and adenocarcinoma is most common in North America and Western Europe. Surgery is a major component of treatment of locally advanced resectable esophageal and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer, and randomized trials have shown that the addition of preoperative chemoradiation or perioperative chemotherapy to surgery significantly improves survival. Targeted therapies including trastuzumab, ramucirumab, and pembrolizumab have produced encouraging results in the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Multidisciplinary team management is essential for all patients with esophageal and EGJ cancers. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Cancers focuses on recommendations for the management of locally advanced and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and EGJ.