Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million. The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers. Because clinical series are small and prospective evaluation of treatment strategies is limited, the current state of knowledge is strongly influenced by expert consensus opinion from a few medical centers specializing in ACCs. This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
Jonathan R. Strosberg, Gary D. Hammer, and Gerard M. Doherty
Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson
Taymeyah Al-Toubah, Eleonora Pelle, Tiffany Valone, Mintallah Haider, and Jonathan R. Strosberg
Background: The capecitabine/temozolomide (CAPTEM) regimen has significant activity in advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Questions exist regarding activity in pancreatic versus nonpancreatic NETs, risk of opportunistic infections, long-term myelotoxicity, and safety of prolonged treatment duration. Analysis of large patient cohorts is needed for the evaluation of rare toxicities and assessment of risk factors. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with advanced NETs seen at Moffitt Cancer Center between January 2008 and June 2019 who received treatment with CAPTEM. Results: A total of 462 patients were eligible. The objective radiographic response rate was 46%, and the disease control rate was 81%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18 months (95% CI, 14.0–21.9 months) and median overall survival was 51 months (95% CI, 42.8–59.2 months): 62 months in well-differentiated NETs versus 14 months in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (P<.0001). Patients with primary pancreatic tumors had the highest partial response rates and longest median PFS. Incidences of grade 4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were 7% and 3%, respectively, and substantially higher in women than men (P=.02 and P=.004, respectively). Only 1 case (0.2%) of suspected Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) was observed in a patient receiving corticosteroids. Three patients developed myelodysplastic disease, all of whom had received prior peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). There were no acute treatment-related deaths; 1 patient died 2 months after a thrombocytopenic bleed. Conclusions: The CAPTEM regimen is exceptionally safe. Efficacy is particularly robust in well-differentiated pancreatic NETs. Severe myelotoxicity is rare; the risk of grade 4 cytopenias is significantly increased in women, and therefore sex-based dosing should be considered. There were no cases of myelodysplastic syndromes, except among patients who had received PRRT, a known risk factor. The risk of PCP is negligible.
Matthew H. Kulke, Manisha H. Shah, Al B. Benson III, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D. Berlin, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Lyska Emerson, Paul F. Engstrom, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Whitney S. Goldner, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Martin J. Heslin, Fouad Kandeel, Pamela L. Kunz, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Jeffrey F. Moley, Gitonga Munene, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, Julie Ann Sosa, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Christopher Wolfgang, James C. Yao, Jennifer Burns, and Deborah Freedman-Cass
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a broad family of tumors that may or may not be associated with symptoms attributable to hormonal hypersecretion. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Neuroendocrine Tumors discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary NETs. This selection from the guidelines focuses on sporadic NETs of the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, lung, and thymus.
Matthew H. Kulke, Al B. Benson III, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D. Berlin, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Michael A. Choti, Orlo H. Clark, Gerard M. Doherty, James Eason, Lyska Emerson, Paul F. Engstrom, Whitney S. Goldner, Martin J. Heslin, Fouad Kandeel, Pamela L. Kunz, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Jeffrey F. Moley, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, David E. Schteingart, Manisha H. Shah, Stephen Shibata, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Rebekah White, James C. Yao, Deborah A. Freedman-Cass, and Mary A. Dwyer
Neuroendocrine tumors comprise a broad family of tumors, the most common of which are carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The NCCN Neuroendocrine Tumors Guidelines discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary neuroendocrine tumors. Most of the recommendations pertain to well-differentiated, low- to intermediate-grade tumors. This updated version of the NCCN Guidelines includes a new section on pathology for diagnosis and reporting and revised recommendations for the surgical management of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.
Manisha H. Shah, Whitney S. Goldner, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D. Berlin, Daniel Halperin, Jennifer Chan, Matthew H. Kulke, Al B. Benson III, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Jennifer Eads, Paul F. Engstrom, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Jin He, Martin J. Heslin, Gregory P. Kalemkerian, Fouad Kandeel, Sajid A. Khan, Wajih Zaheer Kidwai, Pamela L. Kunz, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, Julie Ann Sosa, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Craig A. Sussman, Nikolaos A. Trikalinos, Nataliya A. Uboha, Jonathan Whisenant, Terence Wong, James C. Yao, Jennifer L. Burns, Ndiya Ogba, and Griselda Zuccarino-Catania
The NCCN Guidelines for Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Tumors provide recommendations for the management of adult patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), adrenal gland tumors, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas. Management of NETs relies heavily on the site of the primary NET. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the management options and the 2018 updates to the guidelines for locoregional advanced disease, and/or distant metastasis originating from gastrointestinal tract, bronchopulmonary, and thymus primary NETs.
Manisha H. Shah, Whitney S. Goldner, Al B. Benson III, Emily Bergsland, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Pamela Brock, Jennifer Chan, Satya Das, Paxton V. Dickson, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Daniel Halperin, Jin He, Anthony Heaney, Martin J. Heslin, Fouad Kandeel, Arash Kardan, Sajid A. Khan, Boris W. Kuvshinoff II, Christopher Lieu, Kimberly Miller, Venu G. Pillarisetty, Diane Reidy, Sarimar Agosto Salgado, Shagufta Shaheen, Heloisa P. Soares, Michael C. Soulen, Jonathan R. Strosberg, Craig R. Sussman, Nikolaos A. Trikalinos, Nataliya A. Uboha, Namrata Vijayvergia, Terence Wong, Beth Lynn, and Cindy Hochstetler
The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Gland Tumors focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. NETs are generally subclassified by site of origin, stage, and histologic characteristics. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of NETs often involves collaboration between specialists in multiple disciplines, using specific biochemical, radiologic, and surgical methods. Specialists include pathologists, endocrinologists, radiologists (including nuclear medicine specialists), and medical, radiation, and surgical oncologists. These guidelines discuss the diagnosis and management of both sporadic and hereditary neuroendocrine and adrenal tumors and are intended to assist with clinical decision-making. This article is focused on the 2021 NCCN Guidelines principles of genetic risk assessment and counseling and recommendations for well-differentiated grade 3 NETs, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, adrenal tumors, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas.