Patients with cancer are at increased risk for developing infectious complications during the course of their disease and treatment. The following sections of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer-Related Infections provide an overview of the risk factors for infectious complications, recommendations for infectious risk categorization, and strategies for prevention of infections in high-risk patient populations with cancer. Individualized risk evaluation for infections and incorporation of preventative measures are essential components of the overall spectrum of cancer care, and may contribute to optimizing treatment outcomes for patients.
Lindsey Robert Baden, William Bensinger, Michael Angarone, Corey Casper, Erik R. Dubberke, Alison G. Freifeld, Ramiro Garzon, John N. Greene, John P. Greer, James I. Ito, Judith E. Karp, Daniel R. Kaul, Earl King, Emily Mackler, Kieren A. Marr, Jose G. Montoya, Ashley Morris-Engemann, Peter G. Pappas, Ken Rolston, Brahm Segal, Susan K. Seo, Sankar Swaminathan, Maoko Naganuma, and Dorothy A. Shead
Patrick A. Brown, Bijal Shah, Amir Fathi, Matthew Wieduwilt, Anjali Advani, Patricia Aoun, Stefan K. Barta, Michael W. Boyer, Teresa Bryan, Patrick W. Burke, Ryan Cassaday, Peter F. Coccia, Steven E. Coutre, Lloyd E. Damon, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Olga Frankfurt, John P. Greer, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Rebecca B. Klisovic, Gary Kupfer, Mark Litzow, Arthur Liu, Ryan Mattison, Jae Park, Jeffrey Rubnitz, Ayman Saad, Geoffrey L. Uy, Eunice S. Wang, Kristina M. Gregory, and Ndiya Ogba
The prognosis for patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved with the use of more intensive chemotherapy regimens, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted agents, and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, the management of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL remains challenging and prognosis is poor. The NCCN Guidelines for ALL provide recommendations on standard treatment approaches based on current evidence. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize treatment recommendations for R/R ALL and highlight important updates, and provide a summary of the panel's discussion and underlying data supporting the most recent recommendations for R/R ALL management.
Joseph C. Alvarnas, Patrick A. Brown, Patricia Aoun, Karen Kuhn Ballen, Stefan K. Barta, Uma Borate, Michael W. Boyer, Patrick W. Burke, Ryan Cassaday, Januario E. Castro, Peter F. Coccia, Steven E. Coutre, Lloyd E. Damon, Daniel J. DeAngelo, Dan Douer, Olga Frankfurt, John P. Greer, Robert A. Johnson, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Rebecca B. Klisovic, Gary Kupfer, Mark Litzow, Arthur Liu, Arati V. Rao, Bijal Shah, Geoffrey L. Uy, Eunice S. Wang, Andrew D. Zelenetz, Kristina Gregory, and Courtney Smith
Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) continues to advance, as evidenced by the improved risk stratification of patients and development of newer treatment options. Identification of ALL subtypes based on immunophenotyping and cytogenetic and molecular markers has resulted in the inclusion of Philadelphia-like ALL and early T-cell precursor ALL as subtypes that affect prognosis. Identification of Ikaros mutations has also emerged as a prognostic factor. In addition to improved prognostication, treatment options for patients with ALL have expanded, particularly with regard to relapsed/refractory ALL. Continued development of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the emergence of immunotherapy, including blinatumomab and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, have improved survival. Furthermore, incorporation of minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring has shown insight into patient outcomes and may lead to treatment modification or alternative treatment strategies in select populations. This excerpt focuses on the sections of the ALL guidelines specific to clinical presentation and diagnosis, treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL, and incorporation of MRD monitoring. To view the most recent complete version of these guidelines, visit NCCN.org.
Steven M. Horwitz, Stephen M. Ansell, Weiyun Z. Ai, Jeffrey Barnes, Stefan K. Barta, Michael Choi, Mark W. Clemens, Ahmet Dogan, John P. Greer, Ahmad Halwani, Bradley M. Haverkos, Richard T. Hoppe, Eric Jacobsen, Deepa Jagadeesh, Youn H. Kim, Matthew A. Lunning, Amitkumar Mehta, Neha Mehta-Shah, Yahurio Oki, Elise A. Olsen, Barbara Pro, Saurabh A. Rajguru, Satish Shanbhag, Andrei Shustov, Lubomir Sokol, Pallawi Torka, Ryan Wilcox, Basem William, Jasmine Zain, Mary A. Dwyer, and Hema Sundar
Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas are a rare and distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. NK/T-cell lymphomas are predominantly extranodal and most of these are nasal type, often localized to the upper aerodigestive tract. Because extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas (ENKL) are rare malignancies, randomized trials comparing different regimens have not been conducted to date and standard therapy has not yet been established for these patients. These NCCN Guidelines Insights discuss the recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with ENKL as outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for T-Cell Lymphomas.