John H. Ward
Adam L. Cohen and John H. Ward
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a premalignant condition that, if left untreated, may progress to invasive breast cancer. After lumpectomy, DCIS can recur, and about half of recurrences are invasive. In 4 randomized trials, radiation has been shown to decrease the local recurrence rate by about half, though it does not change survival. Based on the results of 3 randomized trials, tamoxifen probably decreases cancer recurrence by about 30%, particularly in young women. Low fat diets, weight loss, and physical activity decrease invasive breast cancer recurrence and may be recommended to certain women with DCIS. Prognostic factors include age, extent of DCIS, margin status, grade, and presence of necrosis, although how these affect adjuvant therapy is unclear. Research evaluating other drugs to reduce recurrence risk and on different ways of delivering radiation continues.
Melinda L. Telli, William J. Gradishar and John H. Ward
Advances in molecular testing have ushered in the new era of precision medicine. The 2018 publication of the TAILORx trial helped refine the use of genetic expression assays, specifically the 21-gene recurrence score, in assigning patients to endocrine therapy alone or with chemotherapy. The NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer explore the clinical applications of this study. The algorithm for managing the axilla in early breast cancer has been further refined, based on the presence or absence of clinical evidence of lymph node involvement. Ovarian suppression has been validated as the optimal approach in higher risk premenopausal women, based on updated analysis of the SOFT and TEXT pivotal trials. In the metastatic setting, the NCCN Guidelines further reinforce the benefit of the CDK4/6 inhibitors, extending the “preferred” recommendation to all the available agents in metastatic disease. Options in triple-negative breast cancer now include, for the first time, an immunotherapeutic agent.
Michele Dabrowski, Kenneth Boucher, John H. Ward, Margaret M. Lovell, Angela Sandre, Janet Bloch, Lynne Carlquist, Monica Porter, Larry Norman and Saundra S. Buys
A study was conducted to describe our group's experience using the NCCN Distress Thermometer in an outpatient breast cancer clinic. The NCCN Distress Thermometer was administered to patients attending the breast cancer clinic at Huntsman Cancer Institute during a 4-month period. Effects of disease, treatment, and demographic variables on distress level were analyzed. Patients reporting high distress were contacted by a social worker to determine the cause of the distress. Two hundred and eighty-six (286) subjects completed 403 questionnaires, with 96 patients (34%) reporting high levels of distress (5 or greater on a 10-point scale). No relationship was seen between high distress and stage of disease, type of current treatment, time since diagnosis, age, or other demographic factors. Underlying mental health disorders were associated with a higher level of distress. The Distress Thermometer was a useful method to screen, triage, and prioritize patient interventions. In our experience, the tool promoted communication between the patient and the health care team, which enhanced treating psychosocial and physical symptoms. Methods to optimize the use of this screen are proposed.
Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Jasgit Sachdev, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff and Richard Zellars
Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Mohammad Jahanzeb, Krystyna Kiel, Britt-Marie Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lisle M. Nabell, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, Richard L. Theriault, Neal S. Topham, John H. Ward, Eric P. Winer and Antonio C. Wolff
Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, Neal S. Topham, John H. Ward, Eric P. Winer and Antonio C. Wolff
Therese B. Bevers, Deborah K. Armstrong, Banu Arun, Robert W. Carlson, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Irvin Fleming, Judy E. Garber, Mary Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Helen Krontiras, Swati Kulkarni, Christine Laronga, Loretta Loftus, Deborah J. MacDonald, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid Meszoely, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Victoria Seewaldt, Rena V. Sellin, Charles L. Shapiro and John H. Ward
Therese B. Bevers, John H. Ward, Banu K. Arun, Graham A. Colditz, Kenneth H. Cowan, Mary B. Daly, Judy E. Garber, Mary L. Gemignani, William J. Gradishar, Judith A. Jordan, Larissa A. Korde, Nicole Kounalakis, Helen Krontiras, Shicha Kumar, Allison Kurian, Christine Laronga, Rachel M. Layman, Loretta S. Loftus, Martin C. Mahoney, Sofia D. Merajver, Ingrid M. Meszoely, Joanne Mortimer, Lisa Newman, Elizabeth Pritchard, Sandhya Pruthi, Victoria Seewaldt, Michelle C. Specht, Kala Visvanathan, Anne Wallace, Mary Ann Bergman and Rashmi Kumar
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction.