Background: This study aimed to describe the aberrations of DNA damage repair genes and other important driving genes in Chinese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) using circulating tumor (ctDNA) sequencing and to evaluate the associations between the clinical outcomes of multiple therapies and key genomic alterations in mCRPC, especially DNA damage repair genes. Patients and Methods: A total of 292 Chinese patients with mCRPC enrolled from 8 centers. Multigene targeted sequencing was performed on 306 ctDNA samples and 23 matched tumor biopsies. The frequency of genomic alterations were compared with the Stand Up to Cancer–Prostate Cancer Foundation (SU2C-PCF) cohort. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) following standard systemic treatments for mCRPC. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with PFS resulting from treatments for mCRPC. Results: In total, 33 of 36 (91.7%) mutations were found consistently between ctDNA and paired biopsy samples. The most common recurrent genomic alterations were found in AR (34.6%), TP53 (19.5%), CDK12 (15.4%), BRCA2 (13%), and RB1 (5.8%). The frequency of CDK12 alterations (15.4%) in our cohort was significantly higher than that in Western populations (5%–7%). AR amplification and TP53 and/or RB1 alterations were associated with resistance to abiraterone or docetaxel. Patients with a CDK12 defect showed rapid disease progression after abiraterone treatment. However, the clinical outcome after docetaxel treatment was similar between patients with and without CDK12 defects. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, a CDK12 defect was significantly associated with inferior PFS after abiraterone treatment. Patients with a BRCA2 defect showed marked response to both PARP inhibitors and platinum-based chemotherapy. Conclusions: Our study explored the genomic landscape of Chinese patients with mCRPC at different treatment stages using minimally invasive methods and evaluated the clinical implications of the driver genomic alterations on patients’ response to the most widely used therapies for mCRPC. We observed a significantly higher alteration frequency of CDK12 in our cohort compared with the SU2C-PCF cohort.