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Nisar Ahmad, Denise M. Adams, Jiang Wang, Rajan Prakash, and Nagla Abdel Karim

Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is a rare hepatic vascular tumor that represents a diagnostic challenge. The rarity of this neoplasm precludes establishment of a standard-of-care treatment. Risk factors for HEHE are not well-known. Liver transplant remains the most common therapeutic modality for nonmetastatic disease. This article describes a patient who presented with abdominal pain, fatigue, poor appetite, and weight loss. Genetic testing showed that the patient was homozygous for C282Y consistent with hereditary hemochromatosis, and liver biopsy was consistent with malignant epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The patient was referred for a liver transplant but was deemed inappropriate for transplant secondary to peritoneal studding, with frozen-section analysis showing metastatic disease at the time of surgery.

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Rishi Agarwal, Jiang Wang, Keith Wilson, William Barrett, and John C. Morris

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an aggressive uncommon malignancy with limited treatment. Traditional antineoplastic chemotherapy has not been successful in the management of metastatic ATC. As a result, the focus has shifted to the development of novel therapies for this disease. The availability of economical comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) platforms with rapid turn-around to identify molecular aberrations in tumors that are potential therapeutic targets has increasingly changed the face of cancer therapy. Identification of targetable aberrations may help identify novel treatment options for ATC. Herein, we report our experience with a 47-year-old patient with metastatic ATC who experienced recurrent, progressive disease and rapid clinical deterioration despite surgery, radiation therapy, and treatment with 2 different chemotherapy regimens. She was found to have a BRAF V600E mutation on CGP, and was started on targeted therapy with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK inhibitor trametinib. After 2 months of treatment, she showed a clinical and radiologic response. The patient remained on this combination for 9 months until evidence of disease progression. Discontinuation of these drugs was associated with rapid tumor growth. Through this case we want to emphasize the importance of early molecular sequencing and identification of genetic aberrations in patients with ATC, and using that information to develop therapies for ATC, an aggressive malignancy with limited therapy and a poor outcome.

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Zhong Ye, Chun Wang, Limin Guo, Juan P. Palazzo, Zhixing Han, Yinzhi Lai, Jing Jiang, James A. Posey, Atrayee Basu Mallick, Bingshan Li, Li Jiang, and Hushan Yang

Background: Use of chemotherapy in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is controversial because it improves survival only in some patients. We aimed to develop a statistical model using routine and readily available blood tests to predict the prognosis of patients with stage II CRC and to identify which patients are likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Methods: We divided 422 patients with stage II CRC into a training and a testing set. The association of routine laboratory variables and disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed. A prognostic model was developed incorporating clinically relevant laboratory variables with demographic and tumor characteristics. A prognostic score was derived by calculating the sum of each variable weighted by its regression coefficient in the model. Model performance was evaluated by constructing receiver operating characteristic curves and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Significant associations were seen between 5 laboratory variables and patient DFS in univariate analyses. After stepwise selection, 3 variables (carcinoembryonic antigen, hemoglobin, creatinine) were retained in the multivariate model with an AUC of 0.75. Compared with patients with a low prognostic score, those with a medium and high prognostic score had a 1.99- and 4.78-fold increased risk of recurrence, respectively. The results from the training set were validated in the testing set. Moreover, chemotherapy significantly improved DFS in high-risk patients, but not in low- and medium-risk patients. Conclusions: A routine laboratory variable–based model may help predict DFS of patients with stage II CRC and identify high-risk patients more likely to benefit from chemotherapy.

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Wen-Zhuo He, Wan-Ming Hu, Fang Wang, Yu-Ming Rong, Lin Yang, Qian-Kun Xie, Yuan-Zhong Yang, Chang Jiang, Hui-Juan Qiu, Jia-Bin Lu, Bei Zhang, Pei-Rong Ding, Xiao-Jun Xia, Jian-Yong Shao, and Liang-Ping Xia

Background: Differences between the features of primary cancer and matched metastatic cancer have recently drawn attention in research. This study investigated the concordance in microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch repair (MMR) status between primary and corresponding metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Consecutive patients with metastatic CRC who had both primary and metastatic tumors diagnosed at our institution in January 2008 through December 2016 were identified. Immunohistochemistry was used to test the MMR status of both primary and matched metastatic tumors, and PCR analysis was performed to test MSI in patients with deficient MMR (dMMR) status. Results: A total of 369 patients were included. Of the 46 patients with MSI-high primary tumors, 37 (80.4%) also had MSI-high metastatic tumors, whereas 9 (19.6%) had microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic tumors. A high concordance was found in patients with liver, lung, or distant lymph node metastases. Interestingly, the discrepancy was more likely to be limited to peritoneal (5/20) or ovarian (4/4) metastasis (chi-square test, P<.001). These organ-specific features were also found in the pooled analysis. Along with the change of MSI-high in primary cancer to MSS in metastatic cancer, lymphocyte infiltration decreased significantly (P=.008). However, the change did not influence survival; the median overall survival of MSI-high and MSS metastatic tumors was 21.3 and 21.6 months, respectively (P=.774). The discrepancy rate was 1.6% for patients with proficient MMR primary tumors. Conclusions: For patients with dMMR primary tumors, the concordance of MSI and MMR status in primary CRC and corresponding metastatic cancer is potentially organ-specific. High concordance is found in liver, lung, and distant lymph node metastases, whereas discrepancy is more likely to occur in peritoneal or ovarian metastasis. Rebiopsy to evaluate MSI-high/dMMR status might be needed during the course of anti–PD-1 therapy in cases of peritoneal or ovarian metastasis.