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Carolina Villanueva, Jenny Chang, Scott M. Bartell, Argyrios Ziogas, Robert Bristow and Verónica M. Vieira

Background: More than 14,000 women in the United States die of ovarian cancer (OC) every year. Disparities in survival have been observed by race and socioeconomic status (SES), and vary spatially even after adjusting for treatment received. This study aimed to determine the impact of geographic location on receiving treatment adherent to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for OC, independent of other predictors. Patients and Methods: Women diagnosed with all stages of epithelial OC (1996–2014) were identified through the California Cancer Registry. Generalized additive models, smoothing for residential location, were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for receiving nonadherent care throughout California. We assessed the impact of distance traveled for care, distance to closest high-quality hospital, race/ethnicity, and SES on receipt of quality care, adjusting for demographic and cancer characteristics and stratifying by disease stage. Results: Of 29,844 patients with OC, 11,419 (38.3%) received guideline-adherent care. ORs for nonadherent care were lower in northern California and higher in Kern and Los Angeles counties. Magnitudes of associations with location varied by stage (OR range, 0.45–2.19). Living farther from a high-quality hospital increased the odds of receiving nonadherent care (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07–1.29), but travel >32 km to receive care was associated with decreased odds (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70–0.84). American Indian/other women were more likely to travel greater distances to receive care. Women in the highest SES quintile, those with Medicare insurance, and women of non-Hispanic black race were less likely to travel far. Patients who were Asian/Pacific Islander lived the closest to a high-quality hospital. Conclusions: Among California women diagnosed with OC, living closer to a high-quality center was associated with receiving adherent care. Non-Hispanic black women were less likely to receive adherent care, and women with lower SES lived farthest from high-quality hospitals. Geographic location in California is an independent predictor of adherence to NCCN Guidelines for OC.

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Viola Walter, Daniel Boakye, Janick Weberpals, Lina Jansen, Walter E. Haefeli, Uwe M. Martens, Phillip Knebel, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister and Hermann Brenner

Background: Chemotherapy underuse in elderly patients (aged ≥75 years) with colon cancer has been reported in previous studies. However, these studies were mostly registry-based and limited in their potential to consider underlying reasons of such undertreatment. This study aimed to evaluate patient and hospital determinants of chemotherapeutic treatment in patients with stage III colon cancer, with a particular focus on age and underlying reasons for nontreatment of elderly patients. Methods: A total of 629 patients with stage III colon cancer who were diagnosed in 2003 through 2012 and recruited into a population-based study in the Rhine-Neckar region of Germany were included. Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and treatment was collected from patient interviews and physicians. Patient (with an emphasis on age) and hospital factors were evaluated for their associations with administration of adjuvant chemotherapy overall and of oxaliplatin specifically using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Administration of chemotherapy decreased from 94% in patients aged 30 to 64 years to 51% in those aged ≥75 years. A very strong decline in chemotherapy use with age persisted even after comprehensive adjustment for multiple patient factors—including comorbidities—and hospital factors and was also seen among patients without any major comorbidities. Between 2005 and 2008, and 2009 and 2012, chemotherapy administration in patients aged ≥75 years decreased from 60% to 41%. Among chemotherapy recipients, old age was also strongly associated with higher odds of nonadministration of oxaliplatin. The 2 most commonly reported reasons for chemotherapy nonreceipt among the study population were patient refusal (30%) and old age (24%). Conclusions: Age was the strongest predictor of chemotherapy underuse, irrespective of comorbidities and even in patients without comorbidities. Such underuse due just to older age in otherwise healthy patients deserves increased attention in clinical practice to ensure that elderly patients also get the best possible care. Patients’ refusal as the most frequent reason for chemotherapy nonreceipt also warrants further investigation to exclude misinformation as underlying cause.

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Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Jenny J. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, Kim A. Margolin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Edward N. Rampersaud, Bruce G. Redman, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Jue Wang, Richard B. Wilder, Mary A. Dwyer and Rashmi Kumar

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight treatment recommendations and updates specific to the management of patients with advanced non-clear cell carcinoma included in the 2014 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Kidney Cancer.

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Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Jenny J. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Edward N. Rampersaud, Bruce G. Redman, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Brian Shuch, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Richard B. Wilder, Mary Dwyer and Rashmi Kumar

The NCCN Guidelines for Kidney Cancer provide multidisciplinary recommendations for the clinical management of patients with clear cell and non-clear cell renal carcinoma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the recent updates/changes in these guidelines, and updates include axitinib as first-line treatment option for patients with clear cell renal carcinoma, new data to support pazopanib as subsequent therapy for patients with clear cell carcinoma after first-line treatment with another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and guidelines for follow-up of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

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Robert J. Motzer, Eric Jonasch, Neeraj Agarwal, Clair Beard, Sam Bhayani, Graeme B. Bolger, Sam S. Chang, Toni K. Choueiri, Brian A. Costello, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Shilpa Gupta, Steven L. Hancock, Jenny J. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Elaine T. Lam, Clayton Lau, Ellis G. Levine, Daniel W. Lin, M. Dror Michaelson, Thomas Olencki, Roberto Pili, Elizabeth R. Plimack, Edward N. Rampersaud, Bruce G. Redman, Charles J. Ryan, Joel Sheinfeld, Brian Shuch, Kanishka Sircar, Brad Somer, Richard B. Wilder, Mary Dwyer and Rashmi Kumar

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) account for 95% of testicular cancers. Testicular GCTs constitute the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the incidence of testicular GCTs has been increasing in the past 2 decades. Testicular GCTs are classified into 2 broad groups—pure seminoma and nonseminoma—which are treated differently. Pure seminomas, unlike nonseminomas, are more likely to be localized to the testis at presentation. Nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor associated with elevated serum concentrations of alphafetoprotein (AFP). The diagnosis of a seminoma is restricted to pure seminoma histology and a normal serum concentration of AFP. When both seminoma and elements of a nonseminoma are present, management follows that for a nonseminoma. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Testicular Cancer outline the diagnosis, workup, risk assessment, treatment, and follow-up schedules for patients with both pure seminoma and nonseminoma.