Moving Forward With Myeloid Growth Factors
Treatment Strategies for Myeloid Growth Factors and Intravenous Iron: When, What, and How?
Jeffrey Crawford and George M. Rodgers
Myeloid growth factors can reduce the risk of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) and thus impact the survival of patients with cancer. Patients should be assessed for risk, taking into consideration patient-related risk factors and chemotherapy regimens. Patients stratified as having at least a 20% risk for CIN should be considered for prophylactic growth factors. The NCCN Guidelines for Myeloid Growth Factors provide category 1 recommendations for the daily use of filgrastim, tbo-filgrastim, and pegfilgrastim. Cancer-related anemia can be treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, red blood cell transfusion, or intravenous iron.
Myelotoxicity and Dose Intensity of Chemotherapy: Reporting Practices From Randomized Clinical Trials
David C. Dale, Gordon C. McCarter, Jeffrey Crawford, and Gary H. Lyman
Delivery of cancer chemotherapy is often limited by myelotoxicity, primarily neutropenia. As part of an effort to create a model to predict the risk of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, we reviewed the reports of randomized clinical trials with more than 50 patients per arm in early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) published between 1990 and 2000. We observed that no hematologic toxicity data were reported in 39% and 34% of the ESBC and NHL trials, respectively. The remaining trials reported on hematologic toxicity in 16 different ways. When reported, rates of neutropenia, leukopenia, and hematotoxicity varied widely with the same and similar chemotherapy regimens. Dose-intensity data were not reported in 39% and 54% of ESBC and NHL trials, respectively. The majority of the remaining studies reported incomplete dose-intensity data such as percentages of patients completing all cycles or receiving a given percentage of planned dose intensity. Only 28% reported the mean or median relative dose intensity received by patients. Based on this review, we conclude that current practices for reporting chemotherapy treatments are inadequate for describing the risk of chemotherapy to patients or for quantitatively assessing the risk of treatment alternatives. We recommend that standard procedures for documenting and reporting hematologic toxicity and dose intensity in cancer chemotherapy trials be required for publication of chemotherapy trials.
Risk and Timing of Neutropenic Events in Adult Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: The Results of a Prospective Nationwide Study of Oncology Practice
Jeffrey Crawford, David C. Dale, Nicole M. Kuderer, Eva Culakova, Marek S. Poniewierski, Debra Wolff, and Gary H. Lyman
This study was undertaken to describe the relationship between the occurrence and timing of neutropenic events and chemotherapy treatment in a community-based population of patients with cancer. The study included 2962 patients with breast, lung, colorectal, lymphoma, and ovarian cancers from a prospective U.S. registry of patients initiating a new chemotherapy regimen. Detailed patient-, disease-, and treatment-related data, including toxicities, were captured at baseline, the beginning of each cycle, and each midcycle blood draw for up to 4 cycles of treatment. Primary outcomes included febrile neutropenia (FN), severe neutropenia without fever/infection, and relative dose intensity (RDI). Thirty-seven percent of patients were aged 65 years or older, 43.5% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or greater, and 27% had 1 or more comorbidities. Reductions in RDI to less than 85% of standard in the first cycle were planned in 23.6% of patients, whereas primary colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis was used in 18.2%. In the first 3 cycles of treatment, 10.7% of patients experienced FN, with most of these events (58.9%) occurring in the first cycle. This first-cycle pattern was consistently observed despite wide variations in event rates by tumor type, disease stage, chemotherapy regimen and dose, and patient characteristics. Despite frequent planned reductions from standard RDI, the incidence of FN remains high in community oncology practice in the United States. Improved methods of pretreatment assessment of patient risk factors for neutropenia are needed.
Developments in Molecular Testing and Biosimilars
Katy Winckworth-Prejsnar, Elizabeth A. Nardi, Lisa Korin Lentz, Jeffrey A. Crawford, C. Lyn Fitzgerald, and Robert W. Carlson
Molecular testing and biosimilars offer the potential for increased access to targeted treatment options and reduction in healthcare costs, but come with significant challenges in ensuring patient access to innovation in cancer care while maintaining safe, effective, ethical, and affordable treatment options. As providers, payers, patients, and the larger healthcare systems become inundated with a wide variety of molecular diagnostics and an increased number of biosimilars coming to market, it will be important to understand regulatory guidance and policy implications relating to the appropriateness of molecular testing and the clinical use of biosimilars in cancer care. In September 2016, NCCN hosted the Molecular Testing and Biosimilars Policy Summit to address the challenges, issues, and opportunities in both the molecular testing and biosimilar landscapes. Keynote presentations and panelists further discussed the status and future of molecular testing and biosimilars within the oncology space, as well as patient access and education needs moving forward.
Myeloid Growth Factors
Jeffrey Crawford, Jeffrey Allen, James Armitage, Douglas W. Blayney, Spero R. Cataland, Mark L. Heaney, Sally Htoy, Susan Hudock, Dwight D. Kloth, David J. Kuter, Gary H. Lyman, Brandon McMahon, David P. Steensma, Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Peter Westervelt, and Michael Westmoreland
Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Mary B. Daly, Jennifer E. Axilbund, Saundra Buys, Beth Crawford, Carolyn D. Farrell, Susan Friedman, Judy E. Garber, Salil Goorha, Stephen B. Gruber, Heather Hampel, Virginia Kaklamani, Wendy Kohlmann, Allison Kurian, Jennifer Litton, P. Kelly Marcom, Robert Nussbaum, Kenneth Offit, Tuya Pal, Boris Pasche, Robert Pilarski, Gwen Reiser, Kristen Mahoney Shannon, Jeffrey R. Smith, Elizabeth Swisher, and Jeffrey N. Weitzel
Myeloid Growth Factors
Jeffrey Crawford, James Armitage, Lodovico Balducci, Pamela Sue Becker, Douglas W. Blayney, Spero R. Cataland, Mark L. Heaney, Susan Hudock, Dwight D. Kloth, David J. Kuter, Gary H. Lyman, Brandon McMahon, Hope S. Rugo, Ayman A. Saad, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Sepideh Shayani, David P. Steensma, Mahsa Talbott, Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Peter Westervelt, Michael Westmoreland, Mary Dwyer, and Maria Ho
Febrile neutropenia, a common side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with cancer, can result in prolonged hospitalization and broad-spectrum antibiotic use, often prompting treatment delays or dose reductions of drug regimens. Prophylactic use of myeloid growth factors (mainly the colony-stimulating factors filgrastim and pegfilgrastim) in patients of heightened risk can reduce the severity and duration of febrile neutropenia. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Myeloid Growth Factors provide recommendations on the use of these agents mainly in the oncology setting based on clinical evidence and expert consensus. This version includes revisions surrounding the issue of timing of pegfilgrastim administration. It also includes new sections on tbo-filgrastim, a recently approved agent that is biologically similar to filgrastim, and the role of myeloid growth factors in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting
Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian, Version 1.2014
Mary B. Daly, Robert Pilarski, Jennifer E. Axilbund, Saundra S. Buys, Beth Crawford, Susan Friedman, Judy E. Garber, Carolyn Horton, Virginia Kaklamani, Catherine Klein, Wendy Kohlmann, Allison Kurian, Jennifer Litton, Lisa Madlensky, P. Kelly Marcom, Sofia D. Merajver, Kenneth Offit, Tuya Pal, Boris Pasche, Gwen Reiser, Kristen Mahoney Shannon, Elizabeth Swisher, Nicoleta C. Voian, Jeffrey N. Weitzel, Alison Whelan, Georgia L. Wiesner, Mary A. Dwyer, and Rashmi Kumar
During the past few years, several genetic aberrations that may contribute to increased risks for development of breast and/or ovarian cancers have been identified. The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian focus specifically on the assessment of genetic mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, TP53, and PTEN, and recommend approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these mutations. This portion of the NCCN Guidelines includes recommendations regarding diagnostic criteria and management of patients with Cowden Syndrome/PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.
Myeloid Growth Factors, Version 2.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology
Jeffrey Crawford, Pamela Sue Becker, James O. Armitage, Douglas W. Blayney, Julio Chavez, Peter Curtin, Shira Dinner, Thomas Fynan, Ivana Gojo, Elizabeth A. Griffiths, Shannon Hough, Dwight D. Kloth, David J. Kuter, Gary H. Lyman, Mary Mably, Sudipto Mukherjee, Shiven Patel, Lia E. Perez, Adam Poust, Raajit Rampal, Vivek Roy, Hope S. Rugo, Ayman A. Saad, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Sepideh Shayani, Mahsa Talbott, Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Sumithira Vasu, Martha Wadleigh, Peter Westervelt, Jennifer L. Burns, and Lenora Pluchino
Myeloid growth factors (MGFs) are given as supportive care to patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy to reduce the incidence of neutropenia. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for MGFs focuses on the evaluation of regimen- and patient-specific risk factors for the development of febrile neutropenia (FN), the prophylactic use of MGFs for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced FN, and assessing the risks and benefits of MGF use in clinical practice.