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Kwang-Yu Chang, Jang-Yang Chang and Yun Yen

Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary liver tumor after hepatocellular carcinoma. Because the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rising in most areas worldwide, identification of the main causes of this problem is urgently needed. Despite well-known risk factors in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, recent reports focus on chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections because an increasing number of studies have observed an association. The relationship, however, is still not conclusive because of the diversity in clinical reports and the lack of in vitro evidences. This issue should be emphasized and further investigation is required for clarification.

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Kwang-Yu Chang, Jang-Yang Chang, Joseph Chao and Yun Yen

Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and one of the most fatal diseases despite modern medical treatment. Because correct staging and surveillance of neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer is mandatory for further treatment planning, choosing a modern imaging system is important. The development of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) has provided alternate means of tumor detection distinct from more conventional methods. This modality has extraordinary performance in detecting locoregional lymph node involvement and distant metastatic disease, and has been introduced as a powerful tool in many guidelines. However, some factors still lead to false-negative or -positive results, raising questions of its accuracy. This article discusses the clinical efficacy of PET in staging and surveillance of neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer, comparing its accuracy with conventional imaging modalities.