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Wing C. Chan and James O. Armitage

The application of gene expression profiling to the study of lymphomas will significantly influence the way these tumors are diagnosed and treated. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is now known to consist of several different genetic entities with different clinical presentations and therapeutic outcomes. In both follicular and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, these studies have shown that host–tumor interactions have a major impact on the clinical course. Findings of gene expression profiling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has indicated the frequent up-regulation of the nuclear factor-κB and B-cell receptor signaling pathways in the activated B-cell type. Drugs targeting these pathways may be effective in the treatment of these cases and clinical trials have been initiated based on these findings. Gene expression profiling may assist in the selection of treatments based on specific metabolic pathways shown to be active in a particular lymphoma. These techniques offer the promise of truly personalized medicine for patients with lymphoma.

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James O. Armitage, William C. Wood and Dan L. Longo

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Vijaya Raj Bhatt, R. Gregory Bociek, Ji Yuan, Kai Fu, Timothy C. Greiner, Bhavana J. Dave, Sandeep K. Rajan and James O. Armitage

Essential thrombocythemia is well-known to transform to other myeloid disorders, such as leukemia; however, the risk for development of lymphoma is not as well studied. This case report discusses a 76-year-old man with a history of prefibrotic post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis on ruxolitinib, who developed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis with peripheral blasts. Results of a bone marrow biopsy and PET and CT scans revealed stage IV leukemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Several days after cessation of ruxolitinib, the patient developed fevers, hypotension, and low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation, and subsequently developed spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome, which resulted in death. This case is unique in several aspects: it highlights the rare possibility of lymphomatous transformation of myeloproliferative disorders, an unusual presentation of lymphoma masquerading as leukemia, and the possibility of ruxolitinib withdrawal syndrome. Additionally, this case serves as a reminder that the use of novel therapies should be adopted after a thorough assessment of long-term risks, including those associated with abrupt withdrawal.

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Vijaya Raj Bhatt, Mojtaba Akhtari, R. Gregory Bociek, Jennifer N. Sanmann, Ji Yuan, Bhavana J. Dave, Warren G. Sanger, Anne Kessinger and James O. Armitage

Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute myeloid leukemia (Ph+-AML) has a poor response to anthracycline- and cytarabine-containing regimens, high relapse rate, and dismal prognosis. Although therapy with imatinib and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is promising, relatively short follow-up limits understanding of long-term results of these therapies. This report describes the outcomes of 3 cases of Ph+-AML diagnosed and transplanted at the University of Nebraska Medical Center between 2004 and 2011. These patients, young and without major comorbidities, received induction therapy with 7 days of cytarabine and 3 days of idarubicin along with imatinib and consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine (with or without imatinib). All patients underwent 10/10 HLA-matched peripheral blood allo-SCT (sibling donor for first and third patients and unrelated donor for the second patient; all had acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and the first and third patients had chronic GVHD. All patients are currently alive and experiencing complete remission at 116, 113, and 28 months after diagnosis, respectively. This report shows that the use of allo-SCT with resultant graft-versus-leukemia effect and the addition of imatinib can result in long-term remission and possible cure in some patients with Ph+-AML.

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Jeffrey Crawford, Pamela Sue Becker, James O. Armitage, Douglas W. Blayney, Julio Chavez, Peter Curtin, Shira Dinner, Thomas Fynan, Ivana Gojo, Elizabeth A. Griffiths, Shannon Hough, Dwight D. Kloth, David J. Kuter, Gary H. Lyman, Mary Mably, Sudipto Mukherjee, Shiven Patel, Lia E. Perez, Adam Poust, Raajit Rampal, Vivek Roy, Hope S. Rugo, Ayman A. Saad, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Sepideh Shayani, Mahsa Talbott, Saroj Vadhan-Raj, Sumithira Vasu, Martha Wadleigh, Peter Westervelt, Jennifer L. Burns and Lenora Pluchino

Myeloid growth factors (MGFs) are given as supportive care to patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy to reduce the incidence of neutropenia. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for MGFs focuses on the evaluation of regimen- and patient-specific risk factors for the development of febrile neutropenia (FN), the prophylactic use of MGFs for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced FN, and assessing the risks and benefits of MGF use in clinical practice.