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Howard A. Chang, Saro H. Armenian and Thanh H. Dellinger

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in long-term survival (≥10 years) in 85% of patients who survive transplant-related complications within the first 2 years posttransplant. Transplant survivors, however, are at an increased risk of chronic health conditions compared with the general population, including the emergence of secondary malignant neoplasms. In particular, female transplant survivors may face a greater risk of lower genital tract (cervical, vulvar, or vaginal) neoplasms due to chronic immune dysregulation in the peritransplant and posttransplant environment. Persistent immune suppression may facilitate the carcinogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV), the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancers and most vulvar and vaginal cancers. Nevertheless, the risk of these cancers has not been sufficiently quantified in female transplant survivors. Small clinical studies have shown that the rate of cervical cytological abnormalities increases after allogeneic HCT, but large population-based studies have not consistently demonstrated an increased risk of secondary cervical cancer after transplant compared with the general population; the risk of developing secondary vulvar or vaginal cancer after transplant remains unclear. A better understanding of the natural history of HPV-associated lower genital tract neoplasms and their transplant-related risk factors would help delineate optimal long-term follow-up protocols in this population. In this systematic review, we summarize the current literature on this topic and discuss the implications for cervical cancer screening and vaccination in female transplant recipients.

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C. Anthony Blau, Arturo B. Ramirez, Sibel Blau, Colin C. Pritchard, Michael O. Dorschner, Stephen C. Schmechel, Timothy J. Martins, Elisabeth M. Mahen, Kimberly A. Burton, Vitalina M. Komashko, Amie J. Radenbaugh, Katy Dougherty, Anju Thomas, Christopher P. Miller, James Annis, Jonathan R. Fromm, Chaozhong Song, Elizabeth Chang, Kellie Howard, Sharon Austin, Rodney A. Schmidt, Michael L. Linenberger, Pamela S. Becker, Francis M. Senecal, Brigham H. Mecham, Su-In Lee, Anup Madan, Roy Ronen, Janusz Dutkowski, Shelly Heimfeld, Brent L. Wood, Jackie L. Stilwell, Eric P. Kaldjian, David Haussler and Jingchun Zhu

Accelerating cancer research is expected to require new types of clinical trials. This report describes the Intensive Trial of OMics in Cancer (ITOMIC) and a participant with triple-negative breast cancer metastatic to bone, who had markedly elevated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that were monitored 48 times over 9 months. A total of 32 researchers from 14 institutions were engaged in the patient's evaluation; 20 researchers had no prior involvement in patient care and 18 were recruited specifically for this patient. Whole-exome sequencing of 3 bone marrow samples demonstrated a novel ROS1 variant that was estimated to be present in most or all tumor cells. After an initial response to cisplatin, a hypothesis of crizotinib sensitivity was disproven. Leukapheresis followed by partial CTC enrichment allowed for the development of a differential high-throughput drug screen and demonstrated sensitivity to investigational BH3-mimetic inhibitors of BCL-2 that could not be tested in the patient because requests to the pharmaceutical sponsors were denied. The number and size of CTC clusters correlated with clinical status and eventually death. Focusing the expertise of a distributed network of investigators on an intensively monitored patient with cancer can generate high-resolution views of the natural history of cancer and suggest new opportunities for therapy. Optimization requires access to investigational drugs.