Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author: Heidi Gray x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Heidi J. Gray

Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States but the leading gynecologic cancer worldwide. Most patients will present with clinical early-stage disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage IA1–IB). These patients are a clinically heterogeneous group, and primary treatment can be either surgery or radiotherapy. Standard surgery is either radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy (stage IA2–IB2) or simple hysterectomy for microinvasive disease (stage IA1). Interest has been increasing in using conservative fertility-sparing surgery through radical trachelectomy as an option for select patients with early-stage disease who want future fertility. Primary radiotherapy is delivered as a combination of external-beam teletherapy and brachytherapy. It is given with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, based on 5 large randomized controlled trials that showed significant improvement in overall survival with the addition of chemotherapy. Using either radical surgery or radiation therapy in stage IB disease yields 5-year survival rates of 87% to 92%. The addition of postoperative adjuvant radiation with concurrent chemotherapy is recommended in patients with high- or intermediate-risk disease after radical hysterectomy to reduce risk for recurrence and improve progression-free survival. In select patients with stage IB2 disease with bulky tumors undergoing primary chemoradiation, adjuvant hysterectomy may provide benefit after treatment.

Full access

Benjamin E. Greer, Ron E. Swensen and Heidi J. Gray

Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer in women and the leading cause of death caused by gynecologic malignancy. Surgery plays a fundamental role in treating this challenging disease. Goals of primary surgery for ovarian cancer are to establish diagnosis, proper staging, determination of prognosis, and optimal cytoreduction of gross disease before chemotherapy for improved outcome. In addition to standard removal of the ovaries, uterus, omentum, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes for early disease, extended surgical techniques used to debulk advanced disease include bowel resection, splenectomy, partial liver resection, peritoneal or diaphragmatic stripping, and use of laser or ultrasound (CUSA). Secondary surgery is used in a variety of situations. Second-look procedures were performed historically to determine response to chemotherapy to delineate duration of treatment, but now are best used in a research setting with the advent of improved chemotherapeutic agents. As a high percentage of patients have a gynecologic malignancy recurrence after primary treatment, many practitioners perform secondary cytoreductive procedures for recurrent disease. Additionally, in the recurrent setting, surgery may be necessary for relief of bowel obstruction and palliation of symptoms. Surgical management of ovarian cancer must be performed by surgeons, such as gynecologic oncologists, who have a firm understanding of the disease process, display good clinical judgment, and are adequately trained to perform the complex surgery that commonly is required for appropriate care.

Full access

Kathryn P. Pennington, Renata R. Urban and Heidi J. Gray

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was previously considered an acceptable alternative to open radical hysterectomy in the management of early-stage cervical cancer (ESCC), but adequately powered, high-quality prospective trials evaluating survival outcomes were lacking. Recently, a large randomized phase III trial, the Laparoscopic Approach to Cervical Cancer (LACC) trial, showed that MIS for ESCC is associated with a higher risk of recurrence and death compared with open surgery. We review the LACC trial findings in depth, as well as a recent National Cancer Database analysis using propensity score weighting that supports the LACC trial findings. Additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms explaining the worse survival associated with MIS for ESCC. This review discusses considerations for integrating the findings of the LACC trial into clinical practice. Based on the high-quality evidence now available, open radical hysterectomy should be offered as standard of care for stage IA2–IB1 cervical cancer and patients should be guided appropriately to make informed shared decision-making if they still desire MIS.

Full access

Robert J. Morgan Jr., Ronald D. Alvarez, Deborah K. Armstrong, Barry Boston, Robert A. Burger, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, David Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Perry W. Grigsby, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O'Malley, Richard T. Penson, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Russell J. Schilder, Julian C. Schink, Nelson Teng and Theresa L. Werner

Ovarian neoplasms consist of several histopathologic entities, and treatment depends on the specific tumor type. Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises most malignant ovarian neoplasms (∼ 80%)1; however, other less-common pathologic subtypes must be considered in treatment guidelines. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Ovarian Cancer discuss epithelial ovarian cancer (including borderline or low malignant potential) and less-common histopathologies, including malignant germ cell neoplasms, carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the ovary [MMMT]), and sex cord-stromal tumors. The guidelines also discuss fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers, which are less-common neoplasms that are managed similarly to epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the less-common histologies of ovarian cancer are managed differently. Information on the less-common ovarian histopathologies are not published in this issue of JNCCN, but can be found online at www.NCCN.org. Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States and the country's fifth most common cause of cancer mortality in women. In 2010, an estimated 21,900 new diagnoses and 13,900 deaths will occur from this neoplasm in the United States; fewer than 40% of women with ovarian cancer are cured.2,3 The incidence of ovarian cancer increases with age and is most prevalent in the eighth decade of life, with a rate of 57 per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis is 63 years, and 70% of patients present with advanced disease.4 Epidemiologic studies have identified risk factors for ovarian cancer. A 30% to 60% decreased risk of cancer is associated...
Full access

Robert J. Morgan Jr, Deborah K. Armstrong, Ronald D. Alvarez, Jamie N. Bakkum-Gamez, Kian Behbakht, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, Maria DeRosa, Oliver Dorigo, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Lainie Martin, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O'Malley, Richard T. Penson, Sanja Percac-Lima, Mario Pineda, Steven C. Plaxe, Matthew A. Powell, Elena Ratner, Steven W. Remmenga, Peter G. Rose, Paul Sabbatini, Joseph T. Santoso, Theresa L. Werner, Jennifer Burns and Miranda Hughes

This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer focuses on the less common ovarian histopathologies (LCOHs), because new algorithms were added for LCOHs and current algorithms were revised for the 2016 update. The new LCOHs algorithms include clear cell carcinomas, mucinous carcinomas, and grade 1 (low-grade) serous carcinomas/endometrioid epithelial carcinomas. The LCOHs also include carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the ovary), borderline epithelial tumors (also known as low malignant potential tumors), malignant sex cord-stromal tumors, and malignant germ cell tumors.

Full access

Robert J. Morgan, Ronald D. Alvarez, Deborah K. Armstrong, Robert A. Burger, Mariana Castells, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, David Gershenson, Heidi Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Lainie Martin, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O’Malley, Richard T. Penson, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Joseph T. Santoso, Russell J. Schilder, Julian Schink, Nelson Teng, Theresa L. Werner, Miranda Hughes and Mary A. Dwyer

These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates for the 2012 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Ovarian Cancer by describing how and why the new recommendations were made. The 6 update topics were selected based on recent important updates in the guidelines and on debate among panel members about recent clinical trials, and include: 1) screening, 2) diagnostic tests for assessing pelvic masses, 3) primary treatment using neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 4) primary adjuvant treatment using bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy, 5) therapy for recurrent disease, and 6) management of drug/hypersensitivity reactions. These NCCN Guidelines Insights also discuss why some recommendations were not made (eg, panel members did not feel the new data warranted changing the guideline). See “Updates” in the NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer for a complete list of all the recent revisions.

Full access

Robert J. Morgan Jr, Ronald D. Alvarez, Deborah K. Armstrong, Robert A. Burger, Lee-may Chen, Larry Copeland, Marta Ann Crispens, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Laura J. Havrilesky, Carolyn Johnston, Shashikant Lele, Lainie Martin, Ursula A. Matulonis, David M. O’Malley, Richard T. Penson, Matthew A. Powell, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Joseph T. Santoso, Julian C. Schink, Nelson Teng, Theresa L. Werner, Mary A. Dwyer and Miranda Hughes

These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates to the 2013 NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer. Four updates were selected based on recent important updates in the guidelines and on debate among panel members about recent clinical trials. The topics include 1) intraperitoneal chemotherapy, 2) CA-125 monitoring for ovarian cancer recurrence, 3) surveillance recommendations for less common ovarian histopathologies, and 4) recent changes in therapy for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights also discuss why some recommendations were not made.

Full access

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Ovarian Cancer, Version 1.2019

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Deborah K. Armstrong, Ronald D. Alvarez, Jamie N. Bakkum-Gamez, Lisa Barroilhet, Kian Behbakht, Andrew Berchuck, Jonathan S. Berek, Lee-may Chen, Mihaela Cristea, Marie DeRosa, Adam C. ElNaggar, David M. Gershenson, Heidi J. Gray, Ardeshir Hakam, Angela Jain, Carolyn Johnston, Charles A. Leath III, Joyce Liu, Haider Mahdi, Daniela Matei, Michael McHale, Karen McLean, David M. O’Malley, Richard T. Penson, Sanja Percac-Lima, Elena Ratner, Steven W. Remmenga, Paul Sabbatini, Theresa L. Werner, Emese Zsiros, Jennifer L. Burns and Anita M. Engh

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the United States, with less than half of patients living >5 years from diagnosis. A major challenge in treating ovarian cancer is that most patients have advanced disease at initial diagnosis. The best outcomes are observed in patients whose primary treatment includes complete resection of all visible disease plus combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Research efforts are focused on primary neoadjuvant treatments that may improve resectability, as well as systemic therapies providing improved long-term survival. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy recommendations, including the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the role of PARP inhibitors and bevacizumab as maintenance therapy options in select patients who have completed primary chemotherapy.