Since the emergence of HIV in the United States in the 1980s, cancer has been a part of the story. The good news is that antiretroviral therapy has improved survival for those living with HIV infection, with life expectancy now approaching that of uninfected people. Consequently, this patient population is living long enough to develop different types of cancer. At the 23rd NCCN Annual Conference, Gita Suneja, MD, MSHP, presented the debut of the new NCCN Guidelines for Cancer in People Living With HIV, discussing the intersection between cancer and HIV infection, the cancers most likely to develop in this group of patients, and the importance of oncologists working in conjunction with HIV specialists to render the most appropriate and individualized care.
Corbin D. Jacobs, Daniel J. Rocke, Russel R. Kahmke, Hannah Williamson, Gita Suneja and Yvonne M. Mowery
Background: Alveolar ridge (AR) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is poorly represented on prospective clinical trials. Adjuvant management is extrapolated from more common head and neck SCC, including those with a stronger influence from the human papillomavirus. The objective of this analysis is to determine the association between adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and overall survival (OS) for resected ARSCC based on adverse pathologic features. Methods: Adult subjects in the National Cancer Database diagnosed with invasive nonmetastatic ARSCC between 2010–2014 were identified. Exclusion criteria included prior malignancy, no/unknown surgery, unknown receipt of RT, RT dose <50 Gy or >80 Gy, RT fractions >68, T1–2N0 disease without identifiable NCCN-defined risk factors (positive margin, lymphovascular invasion, pT3–4, N2–3, extranodal extension, or level IV/V nodal metastasis), and unknown/missing NCCN risk factor data. Log-rank test stratified by RT and Cox regression analyses with respect to OS were performed. Results: 1,450 subjects met inclusion criteria, of which 825 (57%) received RT. Median follow-up was 27 months. Adjuvant RT was associated with improved OS (72% vs 65% at 2 years, log-rank P=.004). Stratified by number of NCCN-defined risk factors, adjuvant RT was associated with improved OS for subjects with 2 (74% vs 58% at 2 years, log-rank P<.001) and ≥3 (54% vs 29% at 2 years, log-rank P<.001) risk factors. Adjuvant RT was significantly associated with improved OS on univariate (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68–0.94; P=.008) and multivariate (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P=.001) analyses, the latter adjusted for age, comorbidity score, and adverse pathologic features. Each NCCN-defined risk factor, high tumor grade, primary tumor ≥3 cm, and ≥5% nodal positivity (number of pathologic nodes positive among nodes resected) were significantly associated with worse OS on univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Adjuvant RT for resected ARSCC with adverse pathologic features is associated with significantly improved OS. Subjects with a primary tumor ≥3 cm, high tumor grade, and ≥5% nodal positivity in addition to the NCCN-defined risk factors should be considered for adjuvant RT.
Erin Reid, Gita Suneja, Richard F. Ambinder, Kevin Ard, Robert Baiocchi, Stefan K. Barta, Evie Carchman, Adam Cohen, Neel Gupta, Kimberly L. Johung, Ann Klopp, Ann S. LaCasce, Chi Lin, Oxana V. Makarova-Rusher, Amitkumar Mehta, Manoj P. Menon, David Morgan, Nitya Nathwani, Ariela Noy, Frank Palella, Lee Ratner, Stacey Rizza, Michelle A. Rudek, Jeff Taylor, Benjamin Tomlinson, Chia-Ching J. Wang, Mary A. Dwyer and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass
People living with HIV (PLWH) are diagnosed with cancer at an increased rate over the general population and generally have a higher mortality due to delayed diagnoses, advanced cancer stage, comorbidities, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment disparities. Lack of guidelines and provider education has led to substandard cancer care being offered to PLWH. To fill that gap, the NCCN Guidelines for Cancer in PLWH were developed; they provide treatment recommendations for PLWH who develop non–small cell lung cancer, anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. In addition, the NCCN Guidelines outline advice regarding HIV management during cancer therapy; drug–drug interactions between antiretroviral treatments and cancer therapies; and workup, radiation therapy, surgical management, and supportive care in PLWH who have cancer.
Erin Reid, Gita Suneja, Richard F. Ambinder, Kevin Ard, Robert Baiocchi, Stefan K. Barta, Evie Carchman, Adam Cohen, Oxana V. Crysler, Neel Gupta, Chelsea Gustafson, Allison Hall, Kimberly L. Johung, Ann Klopp, Ann S. LaCasce, Chi Lin, Amitkumar Mehta, Manoj P. Menon, David Morgan, Nitya Nathwani, Ariela Noy, Lee Ratner, Stacey Rizza, Michelle A. Rudek, Julian Sanchez, Jeff Taylor, Benjamin Tomlinson, Chia-Ching J. Wang, Sai Yendamuri, Mary A. Dwyer, CGC and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass
As treatment of HIV has improved, people living with HIV (PLWH) have experienced a decreased risk of AIDS and AIDS-defining cancers (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and cervical cancer), but the risk of Kaposi sarcoma in PLWH is still elevated about 500-fold compared with the general population in the United States. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for AIDS-Related Kaposi Sarcoma provide diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance recommendations for PLWH who develop limited cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma and for those with advanced cutaneous, oral, visceral, or nodal disease.