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Charu Aggarwal, Neeta Somaiah and George R. Simon

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancers. Most patients with NSCLC present with locoregionally advanced or metastatic disease, for which response rates and median overall survival remain poor. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for NSCLC in both adjuvant and metastatic disease. Personalized chemotherapy and targeted biologic therapy based on a tumor's histologic and molecular profile have already shown promise in optimizing efficacy. Various markers are currently being investigated for their ability to guide treatment decision-making and management. This article describes these predictive and prognostic markers and details their current role, benefit, and potential future use in the management of patients with NSCLC.

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Belqis El Ferjani, Sheenu Chandwani, Meita Hirschmann, Seydeh Dibaj, Emily Roarty, Jianjun Zhang, Waree Rinsurnogkawong, Jeff Lewis, Jack Lee, Jack A. Roth, Stephen Swisher, John V. Heymach, Thomas Burke and George R. Simon

Background: NSCLC is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Recently reported clinical trials have firmly established the role of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors in the treatment of patients (pts) with metastatic NSCLC (mNSCLC). We have established the prospective, observational, real-world Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Holistic Registry (ANCHoR) to understand how the advent of immunotherapy impacts treatment choices and clinical outcomes. Objectives: The aim of this analysis is to measure the impact of immunotherapy on the treatment choice for the first-line treatment of mNSCLC and to determine the link between PD-L1 expression and the treatment choices made in routine clinical practice at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDA). Methods: From May 1, 2017, to June 30, 2018, English-speaking pts with mNSCLC at MDA who provided written informed consent were enrolled in ANCHoR and longitudinally followed. The PD-L1 testing rates were captured and the treatment decisions made were also captured and tabulated. The time of data cutoff for this study is June 30, 2018. Results: Of the 296 pts enrolled in the registry at the time of data cutoff, there were 49.7% males, 82.1% white, 45.9% ≥65 years old, 69.3% smokers, 83.1% with an initial stage IV diagnosis, 87.2% with nonsquamous histology, 36.1% with bone metastasis, 29.4% with brain metastasis, 43.2% with 0–1 performance status, and 21.6% with a known EGFR or ALK mutation. A total of 233 pts had been tested for PD-L1 (78.7%). Predominant reasons for not testing (63 pts) include not having available tissue (26 pts) or the test was not requested by the physician (31 pts). As of June 30, 2018, 38.5% of patients received immunotherapy as first-line therapy either as a single agent (18.9%, 56 pts) or in combination with chemotherapy (19.6%, 58 pts). Only 35.8% of the patients received platinum doublet chemotherapy alone. Two pts received chemotherapy combined with an anti-angiogenesis agent (0.68%). Targeted therapy was utilized either as a single agent (20.6%) or in combination with immunotherapy (2.4%). Conclusion: Immunotherapy is now utilized as a single agent or in combination in more than one-third of patients with mNSCLC. These numbers are expected to increase as data from recently reported studies get incorporated into common clinical practice. Compared to historic experience, there has been a dramatic decline in the use of chemotherapy with an anti-angiogenesis agent.

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Peter R. Carroll, J. Kellogg Parsons, Gerald Andriole, Robert R. Bahnson, Erik P. Castle, William J. Catalona, Douglas M. Dahl, John W. Davis, Jonathan I. Epstein, Ruth B. Etzioni, Thomas Farrington, George P. Hemstreet III, Mark H. Kawachi, Simon Kim, Paul H. Lange, Kevin R. Loughlin, William Lowrance, Paul Maroni, James Mohler, Todd M. Morgan, Kelvin A. Moses, Robert B. Nadler, Michael Poch, Chuck Scales, Terrence M. Shaneyfelt, Marc C. Smaldone, Geoffrey Sonn, Preston Sprenkle, Andrew J. Vickers, Robert Wake, Dorothy A. Shead and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for prostate cancer screening in healthy men who have elected to participate in an early detection program. The NCCN Guidelines focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 guideline update, which included issues surrounding screening in high-risk populations (ie, African Americans, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), approaches to refine patient selection for initial and repeat biopsies, and approaches to improve biopsy specificity.

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David S. Ettinger, Wallace Akerley, Gerold Bepler, Matthew G. Blum, Andrew Chang, Richard T. Cheney, Lucian R. Chirieac, Thomas A. D'Amico, Todd L. Demmy, Apar Kishor P. Ganti, Ramaswamy Govindan, Frederic W. Grannis Jr., Thierry Jahan, Mohammad Jahanzeb, David H. Johnson, Anne Kessinger, Ritsuko Komaki, Feng-Ming Kong, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, Quynh-Thu Le, Inga T. Lennes, Renato Martins, Janis O'Malley, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, Gregory A. Otterson, Jyoti D. Patel, Katherine M. Pisters, Karen Reckamp, Gregory J. Riely, Eric Rohren, George R. Simon, Scott J. Swanson, Douglas E. Wood and Stephen C. Yang

OverviewLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. An estimated 219,440 new cases (116,090 men; 103,350 women) of lung and bronchus cancer were diagnosed in 2009, and 159,390 deaths (88,900 men; 70,490 women) occurred from the disease.1 Only 15% of all lung cancer patients are alive 5 years or more after diagnosis (http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/lungb.html). Common symptoms of lung cancer include cough, dyspnea, weight loss, and chest pain; symptomatic patients are more likely to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.The primary risk factor for lung cancer is smoking, which accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancer-related deaths.2 The risk for lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years spent smoking. In addition to the hazard of first-hand smoke, exposed nonsmokers have an increased relative risk for developing lung cancer.3 Radon gas, a radioactive gas that is produced by the decay of radium 226, is the second leading cause of lung cancer.4 The decay of this isotope leads to the production of substances that emit alpha-particles, which may cause cell damage and therefore increase the potential for malignant transformation. Data suggest that postmenopausal women who smoke or are former smokers should not undergo hormone replacement therapy, because it increases the risk for death from non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).5Asbestos, a mineral compound that breaks into small airborne shards, is a known carcinogen that increases the risk for lung cancer in people exposed to the airborne fibers,...