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Ghadeer Olleik, Wassim Kassouf, Armen Aprikian, Jason Hu, Marie Vanhuyse, Fabio Cury, Stuart Peacock, Elin Bonnevier, Ebba Palenius, and Alice Dragomir

Background: Inaccurate risk classification and the burden of unnecessary biopsies are a challenge due to the limited ability of current risk assessment tools and modalities to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) and distinguish indolent from aggressive disease. This systematic review assesses newly developed tests and interventions with high evidence of clinical utility that might be adopted in clinical practice during PCa management before initial and repeat biopsy, after positive biopsy, and after radical treatment. Methods: The Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases were searched for studies pertaining to the clinical utility of PCa diagnostic tests. Outcomes of interest were (1) a measure of the percentage of altered decision-making, (2) decrease in number of unnecessary biopsies, (3) decrease or increase in treatment intensity, and (4) risk reclassification after test results. Results: The search yielded 2,940 articles, of which 46 met the inclusion criteria. We found clinical utility evidence on the Prostate Health Index (PHI), 4Kscore test, MRI, OncotypeDX, Decipher test, Prolaris, ConfirmMDx, Progensa PCA3, NADiA ProsVue, and ProMark. No evidence was identified for Prostarix, ProstaVysion, Prostate Core Mitomic Test, and Mi-Prostate Score. The interventions demonstrated their clinical utility in terms of change in treatment recommendations, decrease/increase in interventional treatment, decrease in biopsy, and risk reclassification. At diagnosis after a positive biopsy, ProMark, OncotypeDX, Prolaris, and MRI guided the use of active surveillance. Use of NADiA ProsVue, Decipher, and Prolaris aided in the decision to add adjuvant therapy post-prostatectomy. PHI, 4Kscore, and MRI used prior initial and repeat biopsies, and ConfirmMDx and Progensa PCA3 used prior repeat biopsies to improve prediction of biopsy outcome, allowing a decrease in unnecessary biopsies. Conclusions: This systematic review suggests that implementation of these tests in clinical practice could effectuate personalized treatment of PCa. Further clinical and economic evaluation studies of long-term PCa outcomes are warranted to provide further guidance.

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George Rodrigues, Himu Lukka, Padraig Warde, Michael Brundage, Luis Souhami, Juanita Crook, Fabio Cury, Charles Catton, Gary Mok, Andre-Guy Martin, Eric Vigneault, Jim Morris, Andrew Warner, Sandra Gonzalez Maldonado, Tom Pickles, and the Genitourinary Radiation Oncologists of Canada (GUROC)

This investigation reports on the biochemical and clinical outcomes of a newly created pan-Canadian Prostate Cancer Risk Stratification (ProCaRS) database developed by the Genitourinary Radiation Oncologists of Canada (GUROC). GUROC ProCaRS template-compliant data on 7974 patients who underwent radiotherapy were received from 7 unique databases. Descriptive analysis, Cox proportional hazards, and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed using American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), prostate cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Multivariable modeling for the primary ASTRO BFFS end point showed that age, prostate-specific antigen, T stage, and Gleason score and components such as hormonal therapy, and radiation treatment (brachytherapy with better outcome than external-beam) were predictive of outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the existing GUROC and new NCCN classification system both showed good separation of all clinical outcome curves. The construction of a pan-Canadian database has informed important prostate cancer radiotherapy outcomes and risk stratification.