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James Saller, Christine M. Walko, Sherri Z. Millis, Evita Henderson-Jackson, Rikesh Makanji and Andrew S. Brohl

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an uncommon angioproliferative malignancy that is associated with human herpesvirus 8. Although there has been recent enthusiasm for evaluating immune checkpoint inhibition as a therapeutic option for viral-associated tumors, the clinical utility in this disease is currently unknown. We report a case of advanced classic KS refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy that experienced a partial response to anti–PD-1 therapy. Comprehensive molecular profiling was performed on a diagnostic tumor biopsy sample. Molecular profiling data from 8 additional male patients with KS were reviewed and compared with those of the index case. The genomic profile of the index case was notable for higher-than-typical somatic mutational burden, including pathogenic mutation in multiple well-described cancer genes, such as TP53, CDKN2A, NOTCH1, and KRAS. Our case suggests that further clinical study of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in classic KS is warranted, and provides a hypothesis for future immunogenomic biomarker analysis in this disease.