Epithelial ovarian cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stages and typically managed with surgical debulking followed by chemotherapy. For patients with presumed early-stage ovarian cancer, comprehensive surgical staging is essential for management, because 31% are upstaged. Over the past 15 years, minimally invasive techniques have improved and are increasingly being used to treat patients with ovarian cancer. Currently, only retrospective data support laparoscopic staging of patients with a suspicious adnexal mass or those surgically diagnosed with presumed early-stage ovarian cancer. Laparoscopy is also used in patients undergoing second-look procedures and to help evaluate whether patients should undergo optimal tumor debulking procedures or be initially managed with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Randomized clinical studies are needed to further support the role of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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Ernest S. Han and Mark Wakabayashi
Thanh H. Dellinger, Amy A. Hakim, Stephen J. Lee, Mark T. Wakabayashi, Robert J. Morgan, and Ernest S. Han
Vulvar cancer is a rare malignancy with high curability in early-stage disease, yet poor outcomes for advanced-stage and recurrent disease. Surgical management is at the cornerstone of treatment for most vulvar cancers, and includes conservative and radical resection of the primary vulvar tumor and excision of local lymph nodes, which are major prognostic factors and drive adjuvant treatment. This review summarizes the surgical management of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, specifically initial treatment guidelines by stage, based on the 2017 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Vulvar Cancer.
Ashwin Shinde, Richard Li, Arya Amini, Yi-Jen Chen, Mihaela Cristea, Wenge Wang, Mark Wakabyashi, Ernest Han, Catheryn Yashar, Kevin Albuquerque, Sushil Beriwal, and Scott Glaser
Background: Vulvar cancer with pelvic nodal involvement is considered metastatic (M1) disease per AJCC staging. The role of definitive therapy and its resulting impact on survival have not been defined. Patients and Methods: Patients with pelvic lymph node–positive vulvar cancer diagnosed in 2009 through 2015 were evaluated from the National Cancer Database. Patients with known distant metastatic disease were excluded. Logistic regression was used to evaluate use of surgery and radiation therapy (RT). Overall survival (OS) was evaluated with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards modeling (multivariate analysis [MVA]). A 2-month conditional landmark analysis was performed. Results: A total of 1,304 women met the inclusion criteria. Median follow-up was 38 months for survivors. Chemotherapy, RT, and surgery were used in 54%, 74%, and 62% of patients, respectively. Surgery was associated with prolonged OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; P<.001) but had multiple significant differences in baseline characteristics compared with nonsurgical patients. In patients managed nonsurgically, RT was associated with prolonged OS (HR, 0.66; P=.019) in MVA. In patients undergoing surgery, RT was associated with better OS (3-year OS, 55% vs 48%; P=.033). Factors predicting use of RT were identified. MVA revealed that RT was associated with prolonged OS (HR, 0.75; P=.004). Conclusions: In this cohort of women with vulvar cancer and positive pelvic lymph nodes, use of RT was associated with prolonged survival in those who did not undergo surgery. Surgery followed by adjuvant RT was associated with prolonged survival compared with surgery alone.
Wui-Jin Koh, Benjamin E. Greer, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sachin M. Apte, Susana M. Campos, Kathleen R. Cho, Christina Chu, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Oliver Dorigo, Patricia J. Eifel, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, David Mutch, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Nelson Teng, Todd Tillmanns, Fidel A. Valea, Catheryn M. Yashar, Nicole R. McMillian, and Jillian L. Scavone
The NCCN Guidelines for Cervical Cancer provide interdisciplinary recommendations for treating cervical cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Cervical Cancer Panel’s discussion and major guideline updates from 2014 and 2015. The recommended systemic therapy options for recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer were amended upon panel review of new survival data and the FDA’s approval of bevacizumab for treating late-stage cervical cancer. This article outlines relevant data and provides insight into panel decisions regarding various combination regimens. Additionally, a new section was added to provide additional guidance on key principles of evaluation and surgical staging in cervical cancer. This article highlights 2 areas of active investigation and debate from this new section: sentinel lymph node mapping and fertility-sparing treatment approaches.
Wui-Jin Koh, Benjamin E. Greer, Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Sachin M. Apte, Susana M. Campos, John Chan, Kathleen R. Cho, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Nefertiti DuPont, Patricia J. Eifel, David K. Gaffney, Robert L. Giuntoli II, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Lainie Martin, Mark A. Morgan, David Mutch, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, William Small Jr, Nelson Teng, Todd Tillmanns, Fidel A. Valea, Nicole R. McMillian, and Miranda Hughes
These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Cervical Cancer focus on early-stage disease, because it occurs more frequently in the United States. After careful clinical evaluation and staging, the primary treatment of early-stage cervical cancer is either surgery or radiotherapy. These guidelines include fertility-sparing and non-fertility-sparing treatment for those with early-stage disease, which is disease confined to the uterus. A new fertility-sparing algorithm was added for select patients with stage IA and IB1 disease..
NCCN Guidelines Insights: Cervical Cancer, Version 1.2020
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, Catheryn M. Yashar, Sarah Bean, Kristin Bradley, Susana M. Campos, Hye Sook Chon, Christina Chu, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Shari Damast, Christine M. Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K. Gaffney, Robert Giuntoli II, Ernest Han, Warner K. Huh, John R. Lurain III, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W. Remmenga, R. Kevin Reynolds, Rachel Sisodia, Todd Tillmanns, Stefanie Ueda, Renata Urban, Emily Wyse, Nicole R. McMillian, and Angela D. Motter
The NCCN Guidelines for Cervical Cancer provide recommendations for diagnostic workup, staging, and treatment of patients with the disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the guidelines, including changes to first- and second-line systemic therapy recommendations for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, and emerging evidence on a new histopathologic classification system for HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinoma.