Background: The routine use of chest radiographs (CXRs) in the initial evaluation of asymptomatic patients with febrile neutropenia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is controversial. Objective: The goal of this study was to document the incidence of pneumonia demonstrated on CXR during an initial febrile neutropenic episode in adult patients undergoing HSCT. Materials and Methods: Clinical records of 1083 adult patients undergoing autologous (n=766), allogeneic (n=269), or umbilical cord blood HSCT (n=48) between October 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. CXRs obtained at the initial febrile neutropenic episode were evaluated for radiologic features of pneumonia. The presence of clinical symptoms, length of stay (LOS), and readmission rates were assessed. Results: A total of 817 (75%) febrile neutropenic episodes were noted. Of the patients with neutropenic fevers, 455 (55%) had CXRs. Of the 76 patients with respiratory symptoms at the time of CXR, 24 (31.6%) had findings suggestive of pneumonia. None of the 379 CXRs performed in the absence of symptoms revealed an infectious process (P=.0001). Moreover, the mean LOS was 23.8 days for patients receiving a CXR compared with 22.2 days (P=.04) in patients without a CXR. Additionally, in patients who had CXRs, 15.7% were readmitted within 30 days compared with 7.4% in those without CXRs (P=.0004). Conclusions: Indiscriminate routine CXR at the time of first neutropenic fever in asymptomatic adults undergoing HSCT is unlikely to reveal an infectious process or change clinical practice, and may be associated with increased LOS and readmission rates.