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Yuefeng Wang, Xinhua Yu, Nan Zhao, Jiajing Wang, Chi Lin, Enrique W. Izaguirre, Michael Farmer, Gary Tian, Bradley Somer, Nilesh Dubal, David L. Schwartz, Matthew T. Ballo, and Noam A. VanderWalde

Background: Chemotherapy with or without pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is included in the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for metastatic anal cancer (MAC), despite limited clinical evidence for RT in this setting. In addition, increasing evidence shows that local therapies, including RT, may increase patient survival for some types of metastatic cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns of care and association between definitive pelvic RT and overall survival (OS) for patients with MAC. Methods: The National Cancer Database was analyzed to evaluate OS of patients with newly diagnosed MAC treated with chemotherapy with or without pelvic RT. Those who did not undergo treatment, treated with surgery, or without baseline variables were excluded. OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards models, and propensity score–matched analyses. Results: From 2004 through 2015, 437 patients received chemotherapy alone and 1,020 received pelvic chemoradiotherapy (CRT). At a median follow-up of 17.3 months, CRT was associated with improved OS on univariate (P<.001) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61–0.81; P<.001). Propensity score–matched analysis demonstrated superior median survival (21.3 vs 15.9 months) and 2-year OS rates (46% vs 34%) with CRT compared with chemotherapy alone (P<.001). Landmark analyses limited to long-term survivors of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥4 years showed improved OS with CRT in all subsets (all P<.05). CRT with therapeutic doses (≥45 Gy) was associated with longer median survival than palliative doses (<45 Gy) and chemotherapy alone (24.9 vs 10.9 vs 15.6 months, respectively; P<.001). The benefit of CRT was present among not only those with distant lymph node metastasis (HR, 0.63; P=.04) but also those with distant organ disease (HR, 0.74; P<.001). Conclusions: In this large hypothesis-generating analysis, patients with newly diagnosed MAC who received definitive pelvic RT with chemotherapy lived significantly longer than those who received chemotherapy alone. Prospective trials evaluating definitive local RT for MAC are warranted.

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George M. Rodgers III, Pamela Sue Becker, Morey Blinder, David Cella, Asher Chanan-Khan, Charles Cleeland, Peter F. Coccia, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Jeffrey A. Gilreath, Eric H. Kraut, Ursula A. Matulonis, Michael M. Millenson, Denise Reinke, Joseph Rosenthal, Rowena N. Schwartz, Gerald Soff, Richard S. Stein, Gordana Vlahovic, and Alva B. Weir III

Anemia is prevalent in 30% to 90% of patients with cancer. Anemia can be corrected through either treating the underlying cause or providing supportive care through transfusion with packed red blood cells or administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), with or without iron supplementation. Recent studies showing detrimental health effects of ESAs sparked a series of FDA label revisions and a sea change in the perception of these once commonly used agents. In light of this, the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer- and Chemotherapy-Induced Anemia underwent substantial revisions this year. The purpose of these NCCN Guidelines is twofold: 1) to operationalize the evaluation and treatment of anemia in adult cancer patients, with an emphasis on those who are receiving concomitant chemotherapy, and 2) to enable patients and clinicians to individualize anemia treatment options based on patient condition.

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Jimmy J. Caudell, Maura L. Gillison, Ellie Maghami, Sharon Spencer, David G. Pfister, Douglas Adkins, Andrew C. Birkeland, David M. Brizel, Paul M. Busse, Anthony J. Cmelak, A. Dimitrios Colevas, David W. Eisele, Thomas Galloway, Jessica L. Geiger, Robert I. Haddad, Wesley L. Hicks Jr, Ying J. Hitchcock, Antonio Jimeno, Debra Leizman, Loren K. Mell, Bharat B. Mittal, Harlan A. Pinto, James W. Rocco, Cristina P. Rodriguez, Panayiotis S. Savvides, David Schwartz, Jatin P. Shah, David Sher, Maie St. John, Randal S. Weber, Gregory Weinstein, Frank Worden, Justine Yang Bruce, Sue S. Yom, Weining Zhen, Jennifer L. Burns, and Susan D. Darlow

The NCCN Guidelines for Head and Neck Cancers address tumors arising in the oral cavity (including mucosal lip), pharynx, larynx, and paranasal sinuses. Occult primary cancer, salivary gland cancer, and mucosal melanoma (MM) are also addressed. The specific site of disease, stage, and pathologic findings guide treatment (eg, the appropriate surgical procedure, radiation targets, dose and fractionation of radiation, indications for systemic therapy). The NCCN Head and Neck Cancers Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel’s most recent recommendations regarding management of HPV-positive oropharynx cancer and ongoing research in this area.

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J. Sybil Biermann, Warren Chow, Damon R. Reed, David Lucas, Douglas R. Adkins, Mark Agulnik, Robert S. Benjamin, Brian Brigman, G. Thomas Budd, William T. Curry, Aarati Didwania, Nicola Fabbri, Francis J. Hornicek, Joseph B. Kuechle, Dieter Lindskog, Joel Mayerson, Sean V. McGarry, Lynn Million, Carol D. Morris, Sujana Movva, Richard J. O'Donnell, R. Lor Randall, Peter Rose, Victor M. Santana, Robert L. Satcher, Herbert Schwartz, Herrick J. Siegel, Katherine Thornton, Victor Villalobos, Mary Anne Bergman, and Jillian L. Scavone

The NCCN Guidelines for Bone Cancer provide interdisciplinary recommendations for treating chordoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumor of bone, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Bone Cancer Panel's guideline recommendations for treating Ewing sarcoma. The data underlying these treatment recommendations are also discussed.