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Arjun Gupta, Raseen Tariq, Ryan D. Frank, Gary W. Jean, Muhammad S. Beg, Darrell S. Pardi, David H. Johnson, and Sahil Khanna

Background: Patients with cancer have several risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the impact of CDI on outcomes in this population needs elucidation. We analyzed the incidence of CDI and its impact on outcomes in patients with cancer using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2001 to 2010. Methods: Diagnosis codes were used to identify patients with cancer and CDI events. Demographics, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), and discharge information were abstracted. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models with weighted analysis were conducted to study CDI incidence and CDI-associated outcomes. Analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4. Results: During the 10-year study period, 20.1 million discharges had a cancer diagnosis. CDI developed in 1.09% of patients with cancer versus 0.77% of patients without cancer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.28–1.29; P<.001). The incidence of CDI in patients with cancer increased during the 10-year study period (64.7 per 10,000 discharges in 2001–2002 to 109.1 in 2009–2010; P<.001). In multivariable analysis, compared with patients with cancer without CDI, patients with cancer and CDI had a longer mean LOS (5.67 days; 95% CI, 5.39–5.94) and higher rates of in-hospital mortality (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16–1.20) and discharge to a care facility (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.72–1.75; all P<.001). Conclusions: In this national database, CDI incidence increased significantly in patients with cancer over the study period and was associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased mortality, and discharge to a care facility. Despite increased attention, CDI remained a serious infection and merits appropriate prevention and management.

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Timothy Gilligan, Daniel W. Lin, Rahul Aggarwal, David Chism, Nicholas Cost, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Hamid Emamekhoo, Darren R. Feldman, Daniel M. Geynisman, Steven L. Hancock, Chad LaGrange, Ellis G. Levine, Thomas Longo, Will Lowrance, Bradley McGregor, Paul Monk, Joel Picus, Phillip Pierorazio, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Philip Saylor, Kanishka Sircar, David C. Smith, Katherine Tzou, Daniel Vaena, David Vaughn, Kosj Yamoah, Jonathan Yamzon, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Jennifer Keller, and Lenora A. Pluchino

Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon and accounts for <1% of all male tumors. However, it is the most common solid tumor in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years, and the global incidence has been steadily rising over the past several decades. Several risk factors for testicular cancer have been identified, including personal or family history of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism. Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise 95% of malignant tumors arising in the testes and are categorized into 2 main histologic subtypes: seminoma and nonseminoma. Although nonseminoma is the more clinically aggressive tumor subtype, 5-year survival rates exceed 70% with current treatment options, even in patients with advanced or metastatic disease. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the primary treatment for most patients with testicular GCTs. Postorchiectomy management is dictated by stage, histology, and risk classification; treatment options for nonseminoma include surveillance, systemic therapy, and nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Although rarely occurring, prognosis for patients with brain metastases remains poor, with >50% of patients dying within 1 year of diagnosis. This selection from the NCCN Guidelines for Testicular Cancer focuses on recommendations for the management of adult patients with nonseminomatous GCTs.

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David S. Ettinger, Wallace Akerley, Gerold Bepler, Matthew G. Blum, Andrew Chang, Richard T. Cheney, Lucian R. Chirieac, Thomas A. D'Amico, Todd L. Demmy, Ramaswamy Govindan, Frederic W. Grannis Jr., Thierry Jahan, David H. Johnson, Anne Kessinger, Ritsuko Komaki, Feng-Ming Kong, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, Quynh-Thu Le, Inga T. Lennes, Renato Martins, Janis O'Malley, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, Gregory A. Otterson, Jyoti D. Patel, Katherine M. Pisters, Karen Reckamp, Gregory J. Riely, Eric Rohren, Scott J. Swanson, Douglas E. Wood, and Stephen C. Yang

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David S. Ettinger, Wallace Akerley, Gerold Bepler, Matthew G. Blum, Andrew Chang, Richard T. Cheney, Lucian R. Chirieac, Thomas A. D'Amico, Todd L. Demmy, Apar Kishor P. Ganti, Ramaswamy Govindan, Frederic W. Grannis Jr., Thierry Jahan, Mohammad Jahanzeb, David H. Johnson, Anne Kessinger, Ritsuko Komaki, Feng-Ming Kong, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, Quynh-Thu Le, Inga T. Lennes, Renato Martins, Janis O'Malley, Raymond U. Osarogiagbon, Gregory A. Otterson, Jyoti D. Patel, Katherine M. Pisters, Karen Reckamp, Gregory J. Riely, Eric Rohren, George R. Simon, Scott J. Swanson, Douglas E. Wood, and Stephen C. Yang

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John A. Thompson, Bryan J. Schneider, Julie Brahmer, Stephanie Andrews, Philippe Armand, Shailender Bhatia, Lihua E. Budde, Luciano Costa, Marianne Davies, David Dunnington, Marc S. Ernstoff, Matthew Frigault, Benjamin H. Kaffenberger, Matthew Lunning, Suzanne McGettigan, Jordan McPherson, Nisha A. Mohindra, Jarushka Naidoo, Anthony J. Olszanski, Olalekan Oluwole, Sandip P. Patel, Nathan Pennell, Sunil Reddy, Mabel Ryder, Bianca Santomasso, Scott Shofer, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Yinghong Wang, Ryan M. Weight, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Griselda Zuccarino-Catania, and Anita Engh

The NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities provide interdisciplinary guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) resulting from cancer immunotherapy. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe symptoms that may be caused by an irAE and should trigger further investigation, and summarize the NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel discussions for the 2020 update to the guidelines regarding immune checkpoint inhibitor–related diarrhea/colitis and cardiovascular irAEs.

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Peter L. Greenberg, Richard M. Stone, Aref Al-Kali, Stefan K. Barta, Rafael Bejar, John M. Bennett, Hetty Carraway, Carlos M. De Castro, H. Joachim Deeg, Amy E. DeZern, Amir T. Fathi, Olga Frankfurt, Karin Gaensler, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Elizabeth A. Griffiths, David Head, Ruth Horsfall, Robert A. Johnson, Mark Juckett, Virginia M. Klimek, Rami Komrokji, Lisa A. Kujawski, Lori J. Maness, Margaret R. O'Donnell, Daniel A. Pollyea, Paul J. Shami, Brady L. Stein, Alison R. Walker, Peter Westervelt, Amer Zeidan, Dorothy A. Shead, and Courtney Smith

The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogenous group of myeloid disorders with a highly variable disease course. Diagnostic criteria to better stratify patients with MDS continue to evolve, based on morphology, cytogenetics, and the presence of cytopenias. More accurate classification of patients will allow for better treatment guidance. Treatment encompasses supportive care, treatment of anemia, low-intensity therapy, and high-intensity therapy. This portion of the guidelines focuses on diagnostic classification, molecular abnormalities, therapeutic options, and recommended treatment approaches.