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Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, W. Bradford Carter, Stephen B. Edge, John K. Erban, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Britt-Marie Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Jasgit Sachdev, Mary Lou Smith, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff and Richard Zellars

Overview These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer are the work of the members of the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel. Categories of evidence and consensus were assessed and are noted in the algorithms and text. Although not explicitly stated at every decision point of the NCCN Guidelines, patient participation in prospective clinical trials is the preferred option of treatment for all stages of breast cancer. The full breast cancer guidelines are not printed in this issue of JNCCN, but can be accessed online at www.NCCN.org. The American Cancer Society estimated that 209,060 new cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed and 40,230 people died of breast cancer in the United States in 2010.1 In addition, approximately 54,010 women were diagnosed with carcinoma in situ of the breast during the same year. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The incidence of breast cancer has increased steadily in the United States over the past few decades, but breast cancer mortality seems to be declining,1,2 suggesting a benefit from early detection and more effective treatment. The cause of most breast cancer cases is unknown. However, numerous risk factors for the disease have been established, including female gender, increasing patient age, family history of breast cancer at a young age, early menarche, late menopause, older age at first live birth, prolonged hormone replacement therapy, previous exposure to therapeutic chest...
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J. Matt McCrary, David Goldstein, Terry Trinh, Hannah C. Timmins, Tiffany Li, Jasmine Menant, Michael Friedlander, Craig R. Lewis, Mark Hertzberg, Siobhan O’Neill, Tracy King, Annmarie Bosco, Michelle Harrison and Susanna B. Park

Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) persists after treatment in up to 40% of cancer survivors and has been linked with increased balance deficits, disabilities, and fall occurrences. This study aimed to comprehensively assess the links between CIPN, balance deficits, and functional disability and to inform the development of clinical screening tools for patients at risk of these events. Patients and Methods: A total of 190 cancer survivors exposed to neurotoxic chemotherapies (age, 57 ± 13 years; average time from completion of neurotoxic therapy, 12 ± 11 months) attended a neurology research clinic for a single cross-sectional assessment of patient-reported and objective CIPN, standing balance in 4 conditions of increasing difficulty, and functional disability. Results: Most patients (68%) reported CIPN symptoms at assessment. Symptomatic patients displayed increased functional disability (F=39.4; P<.001) and balance deficits (F=34.5; P<.001), with degree of balance impairments consistent with a healthy elderly population (age ≥65 years) reporting multiple falls over the subsequent year. Increasing CIPN severity correlated with increasing functional disability (clinically assessed R2=0.46; patient-reported R2=0.49; P<.001) and balance deficits (clinically assessed R2=0.41; patient-reported R2=0.30; P<.001). A 5-factor model of key independent correlates—patient-reported numbness/tingling, weakness, and balance deficit; age; and vibration perception—was strongly linked to balance deficits (R2=0.46; P<.001) and functional disability (R2=0.56; P<.001). Conclusions: This study confirms links between increasing CIPN severity and increasing balance deficits and functional disability using comprehensive CIPN assessment methodology. The extent of balance deficits in patients with CIPN underscores the functional consequences of neurotoxicity. A 5-factor model provides a foundation for clinical screening tools to assess balance deficits and functional disability in patients exposed to neurotoxic chemotherapies.

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Metastatic Breast Cancer, Version 1.2012

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, Stephen B. Edge, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven Jay Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Richard L. Theriault, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Rashmi Kumar and Dorothy A. Shead

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of metastatic breast cancer in the 2012 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer. These changes/updates include the issue of retesting of biomarkers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) on recurrent disease, new information regarding first-line combination endocrine therapy for metastatic disease, a new section on monitoring of patients with metastatic disease, and new information on endocrine therapy combined with an mTOR inhibitor as a subsequent therapeutic option.

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Richard L. Theriault, Robert W. Carlson, Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, Stephen B. Edge, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Dorothy A. Shead and Rashmi Kumar

These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.