Many women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer will receive tamoxifen at some point in their treatment course. Tamoxifen is biotransformed to the potent antiestrogen endoxifen almost exclusively through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoform. Although prospective data are lacking, the balance of evidence available currently suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2D6 gene, particularly the presence of 2 null alleles, predicts for reduced tamoxifen metabolism and possibly poorer outcome than expected in patients with a wild-type genotype. Studies evaluating the impact of genetic polymorphisms that result in CYP2D6 with reduced or no activity on long-term outcome have been mostly retrospective and conducted on archival tissues or those obtained previously in prospective studies of tamoxifen. Until data are available from retrospective examinations of the large prospective trials already conducted, or adequately powered prospective analyses, transforming this information into guidelines for individual patients remains challenging. The authors do not currently recommend routine testing for CYP2D6 genotype for making clinical decisions regarding tamoxifen. Use of concomitant strong or intermediate inhibitors of CYP2D6 should be avoided when alternate medications are available. Ongoing research is directed toward identifying other polymorphisms that may influence the efficacy and safety of tamoxifen, other hormonal agents, and chemotherapies used to treat breast cancer. The hope is that in the future, not only tumor-associated factors but also germ-line host genetics can be used to determine whether a woman should receive treatment, and with which specific agents, to prevent breast cancer recurrence or death or avoid drug-related toxicities.
Michaela J. Higgins, James M. Rae, David A. Flockhart, Daniel F. Hayes, and Vered Stearns
Phillip G. Febbo, Marc Ladanyi, Kenneth D. Aldape, Angelo M. De Marzo, M. Elizabeth Hammond, Daniel F. Hayes, A. John Iafrate, R. Kate Kelley, Guido Marcucci, Shuji Ogino, William Pao, Dennis C. Sgroi, and Marian L. Birkeland
The molecular analysis of biomarkers in oncology is rapidly advancing, but the incorporation of new molecular tests into clinical practice will require a greater understanding of the genetic changes that drive malignancy, the assays used to measure the resulting phenotypes and genotypes, and the regulatory processes that new molecular biomarkers must face to be accepted for clinical use. To address these issues and provide an overview of current molecular testing in 6 major malignancies, including glioma, breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia, an NCCN Task Force was convened on the topic of evaluating the clinical utility of tumor markers in oncology. The output of this meeting, contained within this report, describes the ways biomarkers have been developed and used; defines common terminology, including prognostic, predictive, and companion diagnostic markers, and analytic validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility; and proposes the use of a combination level of evidence score to aid in the evaluation of novel biomarker tests as they arise. The current state of regulatory oversight and anticipated changes in the regulation of molecular testing are also addressed.
Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines
Robert W. Carlson, D. Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, Stephen B. Edge, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven Jay Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, Richard L. Theriault, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Rashmi Kumar, and Dorothy A. Shead
These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of metastatic breast cancer in the 2012 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Breast Cancer. These changes/updates include the issue of retesting of biomarkers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) on recurrent disease, new information regarding first-line combination endocrine therapy for metastatic disease, a new section on monitoring of patients with metastatic disease, and new information on endocrine therapy combined with an mTOR inhibitor as a subsequent therapeutic option.
William J. Gradishar, Benjamin O. Anderson, Sarah L. Blair, Harold J. Burstein, Amy Cyr, Anthony D. Elias, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Robert S. Miller, Mark Pegram, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Kilian E. Salerno, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. The overall management of breast cancer includes the treatment of local disease with surgery, radiation therapy, or both, and the treatment of systemic disease with cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, biologic therapy, or combinations of these. The NCCN Guidelines specific to management of large clinical stage II and III tumors are discussed in this article. These guidelines are the work of the members of the NCCN Breast Cancer Panel. Expert medical clinical judgment is required to apply these guidelines in the context of an individual patient to provide optimal care. Although not stated at every decision point of the guidelines, patient participation in prospective clinical trials is the preferred option of treatment for all stages of breast cancer.
Richard L. Theriault, Robert W. Carlson, Craig Allred, Benjamin O. Anderson, Harold J. Burstein, Stephen B. Edge, William B. Farrar, Andres Forero, Sharon Hermes Giordano, Lori J. Goldstein, William J. Gradishar, Daniel F. Hayes, Clifford A. Hudis, Steven J. Isakoff, Britt-Marie E. Ljung, David A. Mankoff, P. Kelly Marcom, Ingrid A. Mayer, Beryl McCormick, Lori J. Pierce, Elizabeth C. Reed, Lee S. Schwartzberg, Mary Lou Smith, Hatem Soliman, George Somlo, John H. Ward, Antonio C. Wolff, Richard Zellars, Dorothy A. Shead, and Rashmi Kumar
These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer.