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Predictors of Outcome in Bladder Cancer

John B. Eifler, Daniel A. Barocas, and Matthew J. Resnick

Tumor stage and grade have largely been responsible for directing treatment algorithms in bladder cancer. However, the considerable heterogeneity of tumor biology in bladder cancer is incompletely characterized by stage and grade alone, and recent efforts to improve predictive models in bladder cancer may significantly improve accuracy and calibration. This article addresses how current nomograms and risk tables may be best used to individualize bladder cancer management.

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NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2023

Featured Updates to the NCCN Guidelines

Edward M. Schaeffer, Sandy Srinivas, Nabil Adra, Yi An, Daniel Barocas, Rhonda Bitting, Alan Bryce, Brian Chapin, Heather H. Cheng, Anthony Victor D’Amico, Neil Desai, Tanya Dorff, James A. Eastham, Thomas A. Farrington, Xin Gao, Shilpa Gupta, Thomas Guzzo, Joseph E. Ippolito, Michael R. Kuettel, Joshua M. Lang, Tamara Lotan, Rana R. McKay, Todd Morgan, George Netto, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Robert Reiter, Mack Roach III, Tyler Robin, Stan Rosenfeld, Ahmad Shabsigh, Daniel Spratt, Benjamin A. Teply, Jonathan Tward, Richard Valicenti, Jessica Karen Wong, Ryan A. Berardi, Dorothy A. Shead, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after a prostate cancer diagnosis and include management options for localized, regional, recurrent, and metastatic disease. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel meets annually to reevaluate and update their recommendations based on new clinical data and input from within NCCN Member Institutions and from external entities. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarizes much of the panel’s discussions for the 4.2022 and 1.2023 updates to the guidelines regarding systemic therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.

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Prostate Cancer, Version 4.2023, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

Edward M. Schaeffer, Sandy Srinivas, Nabil Adra, Yi An, Daniel Barocas, Rhonda Bitting, Alan Bryce, Brian Chapin, Heather H. Cheng, Anthony Victor D’Amico, Neil Desai, Tanya Dorff, James A. Eastham, Thomas A. Farrington, Xin Gao, Shilpa Gupta, Thomas Guzzo, Joseph E. Ippolito, Michael R. Kuettel, Joshua M. Lang, Tamara Lotan, Rana R. McKay, Todd Morgan, George Netto, Julio M. Pow-Sang, Robert Reiter, Mack Roach III, Tyler Robin, Stan Rosenfeld, Ahmad Shabsigh, Daniel Spratt, Benjamin A. Teply, Jonathan Tward, Richard Valicenti, Jessica Karen Wong, Dorothy A. Shead, Jenna Snedeker, and Deborah A. Freedman-Cass

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer provide a framework on which to base decisions regarding the workup of patients with prostate cancer, risk stratification and management of localized disease, post-treatment monitoring, and treatment of recurrence and advanced disease. The Guidelines sections included in this article focus on the management of metastatic castration-sensitive disease, nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and metastatic CRPC (mCRPC). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with treatment intensification is strongly recommended for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. For patients with nonmetastatic CRPC, ADT is continued with or without the addition of certain secondary hormone therapies depending on prostate-specific antigen doubling time. In the mCRPC setting, ADT is continued with the sequential addition of certain secondary hormone therapies, chemotherapies, immunotherapies, radiopharmaceuticals, and/or targeted therapies. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel emphasizes a shared decision-making approach in all disease settings based on patient preferences, prior treatment exposures, the presence or absence of visceral disease, symptoms, and potential side effects.

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Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 1.2014

Peter R. Carroll, J. Kellogg Parsons, Gerald Andriole, Robert R. Bahnson, Daniel A. Barocas, William J. Catalona, Douglas M. Dahl, John W. Davis, Jonathan I. Epstein, Ruth B. Etzioni, Veda N. Giri, George P. Hemstreet III, Mark H. Kawachi, Paul H. Lange, Kevin R. Loughlin, William Lowrance, Paul Maroni, James Mohler, Todd M. Morgan, Robert B. Nadler, Michael Poch, Chuck Scales, Terrence M. Shanefelt, Andrew J. Vickers, Robert Wake, Dorothy A. Shead, and Maria Ho

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for men choosing to participate in an early detection program for prostate cancer. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight notable recent updates. Overall, the 2014 update represents a more streamlined and concise set of recommendations. The panel stratified the age ranges at which initiating testing for prostate cancer should be considered. Indications for biopsy include both a cutpoint and the use of multiple risk variables in combination. In addition to other biomarkers of specificity, the Prostate Health Index has been included to aid biopsy decisions in certain men, given recent FDA approvals.

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Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 2.2015

Peter R. Carroll, J. Kellogg Parsons, Gerald Andriole, Robert R. Bahnson, Daniel A. Barocas, Erik P. Castle, William J. Catalona, Douglas M. Dahl, John W. Davis, Jonathan I. Epstein, Ruth B. Etzioni, Thomas Farrington, George P. Hemstreet III, Mark H. Kawachi, Paul H. Lange, Kevin R. Loughlin, William Lowrance, Paul Maroni, James Mohler, Todd M. Morgan, Robert B. Nadler, Michael Poch, Chuck Scales, Terrence M. Shaneyfelt, Marc C. Smaldone, Geoffrey Sonn, Preston Sprenke, Andrew J. Vickers, Robert Wake, Dorothy A. Shead, and Deborah Freedman-Cass

Prostate cancer represents a spectrum of disease that ranges from nonaggressive, slow-growing disease that may not require treatment to aggressive, fast-growing disease that does. The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide a set of sequential recommendations detailing a screening and evaluation strategy for maximizing the detection of prostate cancer that is potentially curable and that, if left undetected, represents a risk to the patient. The guidelines were developed for healthy men who have elected to participate in the early detection of prostate cancer, and they focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease.