Crystal S. Denlinger
Crystal Denlinger and Terry S. Langbaum
For most cancers, intensive posttreatment surveillance does not improve survival, but can induce anxiety in patients and may lead to unnecessary testing due to false-positive results. For colorectal cancer, more intensive surveillance, especially during the first few survivorship years, is warranted. For breast cancer, surveillance for second primary cancers with annual mammography is warranted. This may also be the case for non-small cell lung cancer. For other tumors, less routine surveillance testing can be recommended.
Crystal S. Denlinger and Jennifer Ligibel
Jennifer A. Ligibel and Crystal S. Denlinger
Survivorship is a stage in the cancer journey like diagnosis and treatment, but it tends to be somewhat neglected in the quiet afterthoughts of treatment completion. Although cancer recurrence, second cancers, and late side effects of treatment are major concerns for survivors, survivors also may experience a variety of long-term physical and psychological sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and treatment. Oncology professionals may be ill-prepared to tackle these topics, and they have few guidelines for meeting these patient needs. In this article, Dr. Jennifer A. Ligibel and Dr. Crystal S. Denlinger present highlights from the inaugural NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology on survivorship care, focusing on the subtopics of exercise, cognitive function, immunization, and sexual function. They also discuss implementing new recommendations on survivorship assessment in the clinic.
Crystal S. Denlinger and Andrea M. Barsevick
Edited by Kerrin G. Robinson
With advances in treatment, colorectal cancer (CRC) is being transformed from a deadly disease into an illness that is increasingly curable. With this transformation has come increased interest in the unique problems, risks, needs, and concerns of survivors who have completed treatment and are cancer-free. Research has shown that physical and mental quality of life for CRC survivors was inferior compared with age-matched individuals without cancer. Although issues and symptoms were most prominent during the first 3 years, long-term effects of treatment can persist and include fatigue, sleep difficulty, fear of recurrence, anxiety, depression, negative body image, sensory neuropathy, gastrointestinal problems, urinary incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The unique challenges and issues of CRC survivors can and should be addressed by health care providers and the research community to ensure effective interventions and models of care to manage these problems. This article discusses what is known about the long-term effects of CRC treatment on quality of life, the care of survivors, and existing models of survivorship care.
Namrata Vijayvergia, Prashant C. Shah and Crystal S. Denlinger
Improvements in curative therapies and the advent of screening have led to increased numbers of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) survivors. Most survivors have undergone invasive treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy) and carry a higher comorbidity burden than survivors of other cancers. Overall quality of life (QOL) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) suffer during the treatment phase, with the potential for long-term decline, and both clinical characteristics and treatment impact these measures. Physical and mental components of HRQOL seem to be most at risk for decline. The issues faced by survivors include physical symptoms such as respiratory issues, fatigue, hearing loss, neuropathy, and postsurgical pain; psychological distress leading to depression, financial issues, and poor compliance with recommended guidelines; and fear or risk of recurrence and secondary malignancies. This article summarizes the major issues faced by NSCLC survivors and suggests appropriate management. Future collaborative efforts are needed to further elucidate the complex issues that affect overall QOL and HRQOL in NSCLC survivors and to develop appropriate interventions in this large and diverse survivor population.
Mary Ann Morgan and Crystal S. Denlinger
The number of cancer survivors will be increasing over the next decade. Caring for this burgeoning population will place demands on oncologists and primary care providers to meet the needs of the expected large numbers of new patients as the baby-boom generation ages. Many will live beyond 5 years and possibly for decades after diagnosis. Patients experience many transitions depending on the type and stage of cancer, its treatment, and the long-term or late effects they have from the disease and its treatment. The Institute of Medicine’s report, “From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition,” recommends that patients be provided with a summary of their cancer treatment and follow-up care plan (ie, survivorship care plan [SCP]), including recommendations on healthy lifestyle behaviors and resources to promote self-care. This plan should be shared with the patient’s other health care providers, including the primary care provider. This will facilitate communication among providers and with the patient, which is a key component to quality care. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer has also made providing SCPs to patients at completion of treatment a quality standard. Barriers to providing SCPs have been identified and include lack of time, reimbursement, and knowledge of late treatment effects and current guidelines. Survivorship guidelines are being developed by professional organizations that may be useful for providers. This article provides some practical tools that address these recommendations to help providers and patients with transitions along the cancer trajectory.
David S. Ettinger, Mark Agulnik, Justin M. M. Cates, Mihaela Cristea, Crystal S. Denlinger, Keith D. Eaton, Panagiotis M. Fidias, David Gierada, Jon P. Gockerman, Charles R. Handorf, Renuka Iyer, Renato Lenzi, John Phay, Asif Rashid, Leonard Saltz, Lawrence N. Shulman, Jeffrey B. Smerage, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Jonathan S. Zager and Weining (Ken) Zhen
Sonali Agrawal, Caitlin R. Meeker, Sandeep Aggarwal, Elizabeth A. Handorf, Sunil Adige, Efrat Dotan, Crystal S. Denlinger, William H. Ward, Jeffrey M. Farma and Namrata Vijayvergia
Crystal S. Denlinger, Robert W. Carlson, Madhuri Are, K. Scott Baker, Elizabeth Davis, Stephen B. Edge, Debra L. Friedman, Mindy Goldman, Lee Jones, Allison King, Elizabeth Kvale, Terry S. Langbaum, Jennifer A. Ligibel, Mary S. McCabe, Kevin T. McVary, Michelle Melisko, Jose G. Montoya, Kathi Mooney, Mary Ann Morgan, Tracey O’Connor, Electra D. Paskett, Muhammad Raza, Karen L. Syrjala, Susan G. Urba, Mark T. Wakabayashi, Phyllis Zee, Nicole McMillian and Deborah Freedman-Cass
Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain.