mTOR inhibitors are used to treat renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Treatment response is variable and appears to correlate with genetic alterations that activate mTOR signaling. Recently, everolimus was suggested to be more effective than sunitinib in chromophobe RCC (chRCC), a tumor with frequent mTOR pathway defects. This report presents the genomic and functional characterization of a metastatic chRCC that showed complete response at metastatic sites and 80% reduction in primary tumor size upon temsirolimus treatment. After surgery, the patient remained disease-free for 8 years after temsirolimus therapy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed 2 somatic variants in TSC2, a critical negative regulator of mTOR: a splicing defect (c.5069-1G>C) and a novel missense variant [c.3200_3201delinsAA; p.(V1067E)]. In vitro functional assessment demonstrated that the V1067E substitution disrupted TSC2 function. Immunohistochemistry in the tumor tissues revealed increased phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, indicating mTOR pathway activation. In conclusion, WES revealed TSC2 inactivation as the likely mechanism for this extraordinary response to temsirolimus. These findings support high efficacy of mTOR inhibitors in a subset of patients with chRCC and propose sequencing of mTOR pathway genes to help guide therapy.
Pablo Maroto, Georgia Anguera, Juan Maria Roldan-Romero, Maria Apellániz-Ruiz, Ferran Algaba, Jacqueline Boonman, Mark Nellist, Cristina Montero-Conde, Alberto Cascón, Mercedes Robledo, and Cristina Rodríguez-Antona
Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Moreno, María Apellaniz-Ruiz, Juan María Roldan-Romero, Ignacio Durán, Luis Beltrán, Cristina Montero-Conde, Alberto Cascón, Mercedes Robledo, Jesus García-Donas, and Cristina Rodríguez-Antona
mTOR pathway inhibitors are important drugs for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, no valid predictive markers have been identified to guide treatment selection and identify patients who are sensitive to these drugs. Mutations activating the mTOR pathway have been suggested to predict response; however, their predictive value is still unclear. Here, we present the genomic and functional characterization of a patient with metastatic clear cell RCC (ccRCC) who experienced a partial response to temsirolimus after a poor response to 2 previous lines of treatment. At the time of publication, the patient was disease-free 8 years after temsirolimus treatment. Multiregion whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 3 regions of the primary tumor, 1 metastasis, and blood revealed tumor mutations in driver genes in ccRCC: a missense mutation in VHL (p.W88L), a loss-of-function mutation in BAP1 (p.E454Rfs*15), and a novel missense mutation in MTOR (p.Y1974H). The MTOR mutation was present in all tumor regions, with similar allele frequency as the VHL mutation, and in vitro functional assessment of the MTOR variant demonstrated that it increased mTORC1 activity. Consistently, immunohistochemistry in the tumor samples demonstrated increased levels of phospho-S6. In conclusion, multiregion WES identified a novel MTOR mutation acquired early during tumor development as the event leading to a high sensitivity to temsirolimus treatment. This study supports tumor multiregion sequencing to detect truncal mutations in the mTOR pathway to identify patients sensitive to mTOR inhibitors.