Background: Numerous risk stratification tools exist to predict early post–pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality; however, few were specifically designed for use in patients with cancer. This study sought to evaluate the performance of 3 cancer-specific (RIETE, POMPE-C, and Font criteria) and 3 generic (Hestia, Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index [PESI], and Geneva prognostic score [GPS]) risk stratification tools for predicting 30-day post-PE mortality in patients with active cancer. Methods: We identified consecutive, adult, objectively confirmed patients with PE and active cancer presenting to our institution from November 2010 to January 2014. We calculated the proportion of patients categorized as low or high risk by each of the 6 risk stratification tools and determined each tools' accuracy for predicting 30-day all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 124 patients with PE and active cancer were included (mean age, 66.2 years; 46.0% with concurrent deep vein thrombosis; 49.2% with metastatic disease; and 46.8%, 16.9%, and 11.3% receiving chemotherapy, radiation, or both, respectively). Mortality at 30 days occurred in 25 patients (20.2%). The cancer-specific tools (POMPE-C, RIETE, and Font criteria) categorized between 32% and 43% of patients as low risk and displayed sensitivities and specificities of 88.0% to 96.0% and 38.4% to 52.5%, respectively. The generic PESI and Hestia tools had sensitivities >96.0%, but classified <19% of patients as low risk; specificity of these tools were low (PESI, 6.1%; Hestia, 23.2%). Although the final noncancer tool, GPS, classified 43.5% of patients as low risk, it did so with a sensitivity of 52.0% and specificity of 42.4%. Conclusions: When risk-stratifying PE in patients with active cancer, cancer-specific tools appeared to exhibit better prognostic accuracy than their generic counterparts. POMPE-C, RIETE, and the Font criteria identified a substantially greater proportion of patients with PE likely to survive to 30 days with comparable sensitivity to the generic tools.
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Erin R. Weeda, Jonathan T. Caranfa, Simon B. Zeichner, Craig I. Coleman, Elaine Nguyen, and Christine G. Kohn
Christine G. Kohn, Gary H. Lyman, Jan Beyer-Westendorf, Alex C. Spyropoulos, Thomas J. Bunz, William L. Baker, Daniel Eriksson, Anna-Katharina Meinecke, and Craig I. Coleman
Background: Although not designated as guideline-recommended first-line anticoagulation therapy, patients are receiving rivaroxaban for the treatment and secondary prevention of cancer-associated venous thrombosis (CAT). We sought to estimate the cumulative incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), major bleeding, and mortality/hospice care in patients with CAT treated with outpatient rivaroxaban in routine practice. Methods: Using US MarketScan claims data from January 2012 through June 2015, we identified adults with active cancer (using SEER program coding) who had ≥1 primary hospitalization or emergency department discharge diagnosis code for VTE (index event) and received rivaroxaban as their first outpatient anticoagulant within 30 days of the index VTE. Patients were required to have ≥180 days of continuous medical/prescription benefits prior to the index VTE. Patients with a previous claim for VTE, atrial fibrillation, or valvular disease or receiving anticoagulation during the baseline period were excluded. We estimated the cumulative incidence with 95% CIs of recurrent VTE, major bleeding, and mortality or need for hospice care at 180 days, assuming competing risks. Results: A total of 949 patients with active cancer were initiated on rivaroxaban following their index VTE. Time from active cancer diagnosis to index CAT was ≤90 days for 27% of patients, 91 to 180 days for 19%, and >180 days for 54%. The mean [SD] age of patients was 62.5 [12.8] years, 43.6% had pulmonary embolism, and metastatic disease was present in 42.6%. During follow-up, there were 37 cases of recurrent VTE, 22 cases of major bleeding (17 gastrointestinal, 3 intracranial, 1 genitourinary, and 1 other bleed), and 105 deaths/hospice claims. The cumulative incidence estimate was 4.0% (95% CI, 2.8%–5.4%) for recurrent VTE, 2.7% (95% CI, 1.7%–4.0%) for major bleeding, and 11.3% (95% CI, 9.2%–13.6%) for mortality/hospice care. Conclusions: Event rates observed in this rivaroxaban-treated cohort were overall consistent with previous studies of patients with rivaroxaban- and warfarin-managed CAT.